The fuel for Friday's flight is one of a series of research projects launched last year by the United States and China, the world's two biggest oil consumers.
The fuel was developed by Boeing Co., Honewell UOP, Chinese oil company PetroChina Ltd. and Air China Ltd.
On Friday morning, an Air China Boeing 747-400 took off from the Beijing airport and flew as officials watched. It landed at the same field.
The companies say such biofuel could be commercially available in three to five years.