The German driver ran into the back of the Williams of Bruno Senna to leave both drivers out of the race after 13 of the scheduled 66 laps at the Catalunya Circuit.
Schumacher, who had started seventh, failed to finish for the third time in five races. He has twice finished 10th, for a season total of two points.
The 43-year-old Schumacher didn't finish three of his first five races during the 2005 season with Ferrari, but also managed a second place and a seventh-place finish.
Teammate Nico Rosberg won the Chinese GP.