Camrose police say they got a call on Saturday night about the 61-year-old woman's death at a residence in the town southeast of Edmonton.
Police have not released the woman's name and say they won't until after an autopsy scheduled for Tuesday.
The youth has also been charged with stealing the woman's car.
He is in custody and is scheduled to make a court appearance June 7.
In February 2011, Valerie Wolski, who was 41, was caring for a man with limited mental capacity at a home in Camrose when she was killed.
Terrence Wade Saddleback was charged with manslaughter, but found mentally unfit to stand trial.
The Occupational Health and Safety Department is still investigating Wolski's death.
NDP critic Rachel Notley says the government should review caregiver safety laws.
“As this government moves to have more and more care services provided in homes and private settings, the workers in these facilities must be kept safe, and the current laws don’t do that," Notley said Monday. "It is tragic that we’ve allowed this to happen again.”