The province has proclaimed legislation which gives it legal authority to file a lawsuit on behalf of residents.
Justice Minister Gordon Wyant says the province intends to hold the industry accountable.
British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador have already filed similar lawsuits.
Alberta said Wednesday that it will also seek to recover $10 billion from tobacco companies to cover the estimated cost of caring for patients with smoking-related illnesses dating back to the 1950s.
Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Quebec are expected to file shortly.