Miller, the captain of Scotland's national team, will be the Whitecaps' newest designated player.
The 32-year-old spent last season with Cardiff City FC in the English League Championship, scoring 11 goals in 50 appearances.
Miller has 187 goals in 547 career club matches and is one of only five players after the Second World War to have played for both Scottish giants Rangers FC and Celtic FC.
The five-foot-10, 150-pound Edinburgh native also won Scottish Premier League, FA Cup and League Cup titles with Rangers and Celtic.
The signing comes after the Whitecaps traded French striker Sebastien Le Toux to the New York Red Bulls on Friday for midfielder Dane Richards and allocation money.