Khaibulaev defeated defending champion Tuvshinbayar Naidan of Mongolia with a match-ending ippon throw that Putin and Cameron both stood to applaud.
The 28-year-old Khaibulaev has not lost at any international event since taking the last world championship title.
Russia has already won two judo gold medals and a bronze earlier this week. They are the country's first judo golds since the breakup of the Soviet Union.
The bronze medals were won by Dimitri Peters of Germany and Henk Grol of the Netherlands.