Muamba travelled to Belgium last week to seek further medical advice from a cardiologist after consultations in Britain and Europe, and has been advised to retire from playing at the professional level.
"While the news is devastating, I have much to be thankful for," Muamba said. "I thank God that I am alive and I pay tribute once again to the members of the medical team who never gave up on me."
Muamba collapsed to the pitch in north London on March 17 and his heart stopped beating on its own for 78 minutes. The game was later abandoned.
"Football has been my life since I was a teenage boy and it has given me so many opportunities," Muamba said. "Above all else, I love the game and count myself very lucky to have been able to play at the highest level.
"I would also like to thank everyone who has supported me throughout my career, and the Bolton fans who have been incredible."
Bolton manager Owen Coyle praised Muamba's character during his recovery.
"Everyone has seen what a fighter and strong person he is in mind and body," said Coyle. "We know that he will go on to achieve great things and within all this disappointment, the most important thing is that he is here, alive, today."
The 24-year-old Muamba began his career at London club Arsenal before joining Birmingham in 2007. He signed for Bolton the following year.
Muamba played 211 games in all competitions during his professional career, scoring six goals.