A year after Jack Layton's passing Canadians are taking time to think about his legacy.
To some he stands as a heroic champion of social justice, the man who triggered the 'Orange Wave' that is still reshaping Canada's political landscape.
To others, he remains a political opportunist, more interested in winning seats and titles than achieving real change.
Regardless of where you stand, it's impossible to deny that Layton has taken his place among the legends of Canadian political history.
Facts Of Layton's Life
As Canada prepares to remember Jack Layton on the first anniversary of his untimely death, we take a look at 11 things you may not have known about the former NDP leader.
11. Progressive Conservative Lineage
Layton's father <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Layton" target="_hplink">Robert Layton</a> (pictured at Jack's graduation from McGill in 1971) was a Progressive Conservative MP and served as Minister of State for Mines in Brian Mulroney's cabinet from 1984-1986. Robert started out as a member of the Liberal Party, but shifted to the PCs in the 1980s. Layton's grandfather, Gilbert Layton, was a Union Nationale MNA in Quebec. The Union Nationale was a conservative party. He served as a minister in Maurice Duplessis' government before resigning in 1939 over its opposition to conscription for the Second World War.
10. Descendent Of A Father Of Confederation
<a href="http://boards.ancestry.com/thread.aspx?mv=flat&m=597&p=localities.northam.canada.newbrunswick.albert" target="_hplink">Layton's Mother Doris Elizabeth (Steeves) was a grand-niece of a Father of Confederation, William Steeves</a>.
9. He Was A Frat Boy
<a href="http://sigmachi.ca/en/news-articles/statement-sigma-chi-re-passing-brother-hon-jack-layton/" target="_hplink">Layton joined the Sigma Chi fraternity</a> while studying at McGill. Here he is seen in a photo from his high-school years.
8. He Was A Doctor
<a href="http://www.yorku.ca/yfile/archive/index.asp?Article=17461" target="_hplink">Layton got his PhD in political science from York University in 1983</a>. He got his MA in political science from York and his BA from McGill.
7. He Married Young
<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Layton" target="_hplink">Layton married Sally Halford</a>, his high-school sweetheart, when he was 19. They had two children together, Mike and Sarah. The couple divorced in 1983 after 14 years of marriage.
6. Olivia Chow's Mother Didn't Like Him
<a href="http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/politics/article/1043197--jack-and-olivia-love-at-first-sight" target="_hplink">When he first began dating Olivia Chow, her mother was not a fan</a>. He wasn't a doctor or lawyer and he wasn't Chinese. A language mistake helped win him her approval. After having dinner at the Chow home, Layton attempted to thank his girlfriend's mother for the food. A mistake in tone led him to say "thank you for the good sex" in Cantonese, according to the <em>Toronto Star</em>. The exchange resulted in laughter that began a thawing of relations between Layton and Chow's family.
5. He Was A Trekkie
<a href="http://thestar.blogs.com/politics/2009/05/where-no-ndp-leader-has-gone-before.html" target="_hplink">Layton and Chow were big fans of Star Trek</a>, even having custom uniforms made, according to the <em>Toronto Star</em>.
4. He Was Against The Skydome...
<a href="http://www.cbc.ca/archives/discover/guess-who/jack-layton-city-halls-tired-but-victorious-warrior.html" target="_hplink">Layton was against public financing for the building of the Skydome</a> (now Rogers Centre) in Toronto. <a href="http://torontoist.com/2011/08/councillor_jack_layton/" target="_hplink">He later called for an inquiry</a> into the debt that resulted from the project. Layton, then a Toronto city councillor, is seen here in 1989.
3. And The Olympics
<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Layton" target="_hplink">Layton fought against Toronto's bid for the 1996 Olympic Games</a>. The bid failed. His opposition was widely viewed as contributing to his defeat in a run for the Toronto mayoralty in 1991.
2. He Was A Pirate?
During the 2008 election campaign, <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgJuzfoNAkg" target="_hplink">Layton credited torrents, a form of peer-to-peer sharing, with helping make democracy work</a>. He also criticized the throttling used by many Internet service providers to slow peer-to-peer traffic, <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2012/08/16/traffic-throttling-bell-rogers_n_1791718.html" target="_hplink">an issue that's still very much in the news today</a>.
1. Third Time's A Charm
<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Layton" target="_hplink">Layton lost two federal races before being elected to the House of Commons</a>. He lost in Toronto's Rosedale riding in 1993 and in the riding of Danforth in 1997. He eventually won that Danforth seat in the 2004 general election, more than a year after becoming leader of the NDP. He would go on to lead the NDP to Official Opposition status amid the 'Orange Wave' of 2011. He died a little more than three months after the election on August 22, 2011.