Messam rushed for 1,057 and six touchdowns last season en route to winning the CFL's 2011 Most Outstanding Canadian award. The native of Brampton, Ont., became the first Canadian back to rush for 1,000 yards since 2000 and only the third since 1965.
He suffered a season ending knee injury during the West Division final against Calgary and underwent surgery in November. He then signed with the Miami Dolphins, but was released by the NFL club last Saturday.
He returned to the Eskimos on Thursday, though it's not yet known whether he'll play in the Labour Day classic against Calgary.
Messam joins a crowded Edmonton backfield that includes Hugh Charles and Cory Boyd. Charles and Boyd currently rank fifth and sixth in CFL rushing.
"We're very pleased to reach a contract extension with Jerome through the 2014 season. He's happy to be back in green and gold, and I'm sure our fans will welcome Jerome with great enthusiasm," Eskimos general manager Eric Tillman said in a statement.