She succeeds Kirk LaPointe, who will remain in the job until the end of this year.
Hubert Lacroix, president and CEO of CBC/Radio-Canada, said Enkin has "spectacular credentials and a superlative track record in journalism."
"She's got everything it takes to assume this key role for us," Lacroix said in a statement announcing the appointment on Wednesday.
Enkin has been a journalist with CBC for over 25 years, first distinguishing herself as a producer with The Journal and The World at Six.
She went on to become a senior manager in radio news, leading the service and developing several new radio programs.
“For the past five years, I have worked with CBC journalists to improve the quality and standards of their work. Taking on the role of the ombudsman is another way to contribute to that quality. But now first and foremost, I represent the interests and concerns of our audience.” Enkin said.
In 2010, Enkin became responsible for updating CBC's journalistic standards and practices (JSP) document across all media platforms.
"Esther was pivotal in bringing CBC’s journalistic standards and practices into the 21st century," said Jennifer McGuire, general manager and editor in chief for CBC News.
"The JSP is now a dynamic document, which addresses thorny issues like the use of clandestine recordings and social media, covering hostage-takings, and how to correct mistakes in a timely and responsible manner," McGuire said.
The ombudsman acts as an appeal authority for complaints about journalistic standards and is independent of CBC program staff and management.