The Canadian duo couldn't overtake the eventual gold medal winners, Americans Meryl Davis and Charlie White, who led after the short program on Friday.
Virtue and Moir (179.83) had the second-best short program and free program, while the Americans (183.39) scored the best skates in both events, finishing 3.56 points ahead of the Canadians.
Nathalie Pechalat and Fabian Bourzat of France took the bronze.
Meanwhile, Canadian skater Patrick Chan won bronze in the men's event, narrowly avoiding a miss of the podium.
Daisuke Takahashi turned in a season's best performance in the free skate to take gold, while fellow Japanese skater Yuzuru Hanu took silver with a score of 264.29.
Chan's cumulative score of 258.66 placed him third on the podium, just 0.04 points ahead of Spain's Javier Fernandez.
Mao Asada of Japan won the women's title following a free program that ranged from sprightly to quietly refined.
Ashley Wagner of the United States, who was half a point behind Asada heading into the free skate, fell twice and ended up a distant second. Akiko Suzuki of Japan took the bronze.