The injury occurred about 7:30 p.m. PT after police responded to a report of a robbery at the Esso gas station at Fraser Street and Marine Drive.
They said they'd been told a man had attempted to rob the gas station but ran away after being scared off by a staff member.
When police arrived, a police K-9 unit began tracking the suspect and found a man in the area of 52nd Avenue and Fraser Street.
As officers tried to arrest the man, he slashed the police dog across the throat with a knife, police said in a release.
Police said the eight-year-old dog, named Teak, sustained serious injuries.
Robbery, weapons and assault charges against a 20-year-old Vancouver man will be recommended to the Crown, police said.