New numbers on teen pregnancy rates in New Brunswick show the province had the biggest jump in the number of pregnancies between 2006 and 2010.
During that time, pregnancy rates for girls aged 15 to 19 saw a 40 per cent increase in New Brunswick over a previous study period between 2001 and 2005.
The data comes from a study released Tuesday by the Sex Information and Education Council of Canada (SIECC) in the Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality.
New Brunswick wasn't the only Atlantic province to see a rise. Between 2006 and 2010 teen pregnancy rates rose by 35.7 per cent in Newfoundland, and 17.4 per cent in Nova Scotia.
All of these increases are well above the national teen pregnancy rate that rose just 1.1 per cent during the most recent study period.
Prince Edward Island was the only Atlantic province to see a decrease, with the number of teen pregnancies down two per cent over the results obtained from the 2001 to 2005 study. Though, researchers point out that sample sizes from P.E.I. are relatively small compared with larger provinces.
Lucia O'Sullivan, a psychology professor at the University of New Brunswick and Canada research chair in adolescent sexual health behaviour, said teen pregnancy rates are linked to the socioeconomic strength of a province.
"What we do find is that the provinces that have the most dramatic increases tend to be the ones that have poorer socioeconomic forecasts and profiles," said O'Sullivan.
"When times are good, young people tend to have a future orientation that makes childbearing more expensive in a way and so they will delay having children and the costs of having children at such a young age is higher — especially when they have such strong and positive expectations for education and employment," she said.
"When times are worse we find that the motivation to avoid childbearing tends to be lower ... We tend to find there is less effort to avoid childbearing and that is in large part because the costs are lower for them in terms of their future orientation."
However, O'Sullivan stresses that these teens are usually not actively trying to become pregnant.
Long-term national trends show steady decline
Overall, the trend in teens getting pregnant shows a steady decline since records were first recorded in 1974.
Longer term, the Canadian teen pregnancy rate dropped 20.3 per cent from 2001 to 2010.
The SIECC study did not specifically look at the reasons behind the jump across most of Atlantic Canada but linked to a recent U.S. study that looked at woman seeking abortions.
The researchers in the American study found that only 11 per cent of women seeking an abortion used contraception.
When those who didn't use contraception were asked why, 42 per cent said that they did not think they would become pregnant, 40 per cent said they had a hard time getting contraception and 38 per cent said they hadn't planned on having sex.
Preventing unwanted teen pregnanciesThe SIECC study outlined a few ways to prevent unwanted teen pregnancy:
- Developing more youth programs for teens.
- Ensuring teens have access to affordable and effective contraception.
- Providing sexual health education for teens.
"Access to sustainable birth control would be fantastic, teaching people how to obtain birth control, also good, but really working on the motivation and understanding the costs in some ways of having children at a young age — what that can involve," said O'Sullivan.
"New Brunswick is a very important case because we have so many young people that have migrated away in search of jobs, and who's left?" she asked.
"The people that are left are ones who either didn't feel they could leave or wanted to leave or had the same opportunities available to them."
She said, though, these teen girls are generally not making a conscious effort to have babies.
"They don't want to be young parents but we do find that the efforts and practices towards preventing that are often worse — particularly for those who have less of an orientation towards a very positive future," said O'Sullivan.
Related on HuffPost:
<strong>TRIMESTER:</strong> 1 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> "Having bananas during the early weeks of pregnancy may help with nausea that many women experience," says <a href="http://anarallidina.com/" target="_hplink">Anar Allidina</a>, a registered dietitian based in Richmond Hill, Ont. Allidina adds that bananas are a great source of vitamin B6 (helps with morning sickness), fibre, vitamin C and potassium.
<strong>TRIMESTER:</strong> 1 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> These leafy greens are packed with folate. "Adequate folate is required in early pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects (birth defects of the brain and spinal cord)," Allidina says. Spinach also contains fibre, manganese, iron, vitamin A, C and K.
<strong>TRIMESTER:</strong> 1 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> Most of us know that beans are an excellent source of protein and fibre, but beans during pregnancy will help you deal with constipation. "Almost 40 per cent of pregnant women will become constipated at some point during pregnancy. Common triggers for constipation include the pressure on your growing uterus, the pregnancy hormone progesterone that slows your digestive track, and iron supplements," Allidina says. Beans also contain a rich source of folate and iron.
Red Bell Peppers
<strong>TRIMESTER:</strong> 1 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> Vitamin C is responsible for the growth and repair of tissues in your body during pregnancy. "Red bell peppers have twice the amount of vitamin C content compared to green peppers — one large red bell pepper contains 209 mg of vitamin C, which is three times the vitamin C found in an orange," Allidina says. Consuming vitamin C also helps us absorb iron faster, so don't forget to add peppers to your stir fries, salads and sandwiches.
<strong>TRIMESTER</strong>: 2 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> Looking for the good stuff? Check the yolk. "Egg yolk contains choline, an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in the development of your baby’s brain in addition to boosting your own brain," Allidina says. Expecting moms should get around 450 mg of choline each day. And if you're a vegan or don't like eggs, other sources include beef, milk and soy beans.
<strong>TRIMESTER</strong>: 2 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> This nutrient-dense fruit is bursting with goodness. "Avocados are a great source of fibre, vitamin K, folate, vitamin C, potassium and vitamin B6," she says. Filled with healthy mono-unsaturated fats, these are the "good" fats that can help protect against heart disease. Avocados have been known to help <a href="http://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/eating-well/week-11/big-nutrition-small-packages.aspx">fight morning sickness and help your baby's brain and tissue growth</a>.
<strong>TRIMESTER</strong>: 2 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> Creamier compared to most yogurts, Greek yogurt actually offers more protein. "Regular non-fat yogurt has six to eight grams of protein per serving, while Greek yogurt has 15 to 18 grams per serving," Allidina says. Greek yogurt is often strained so most the liquid is removed. It's also a good source of calcium — which every woman needs during pregnancy.
<strong>TRIMESTER</strong>: 3 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> This tropical food is full of vitamin C, folate, fibre and potassium. "Papaya is also a natural way to soothe heartburn, which is often experienced during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester," Allidina says. However, pregnant women should only eat ripe papaya, as unripe papayas contain pepsin in their latex (the resin from the papaya tree), which can induce contractions.
<strong>TRIMESTER</strong>: 3 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> As discomfort becomes more common during the third trimester, it's important to eat frequently. "Nuts are a great source of protein and heart healthy fats, and make a great snack since they're easy to store," she says. Nuts like almonds, walnuts, pistachios and cashews all have healthy fats, protein and fibre.
<strong>TRIMESTER</strong>: 3 <strong>WHY IT WORKS:</strong> You can eat up to six ounces of albacore (white) tuna a week — eating more than the recommended amount can lead to higher mercury levels that can be harmful to your baby, Allidina says. But including oily or fatty fish in your diet fuels your body with omega 3 fatty acids which helps your heart and strengthens your brain health. Eating up to 12 ounces of fish a week is considered safe during pregnancy.