The law, which aims to help prevent several types of skin cancer, will make it illegal to offer or sell UV tanning services to minors.
Health Minister Réjean Hébert said the government wanted to use a preventive approach to limit the damaging effects of artificial tanning on people's health.
He said several groups of experts, including dermatologists, lament the use of tanning beds.
Under the new law, salons that allow minors to use their services could face fines between $500 and $15,000.
Minors could be fined a maximum of $100 for breaking the law.
The Canadian Cancer Society and the province's association of dermatologists say UV beds can lead to different types of skin cancer such as melanoma.
Health officials will be meeting with tanning salon owners in the coming months to increase awareness and give them an information kit about the health risks associated with their services.
The new law also forbids marketing UV tanning to minors.
The Canadian Cancer Society said it supports Quebec's decision to enact a new law. It said the new rules will help reduce the risk of skin cancer.Sixty-thousand Quebecers signed a petition from the organization in support of regulating the province's artificial tanning industry.