The PQ is starting out its first full legislative session with a series of controversial policies.
Premier Pauline Marois said she plans to push forward with Quebec sovereignty.
Marois said her government will bring back the confidence, pride and ambition that was lacking during the nine years of Liberal leadership.
Her government's priorities include wrestling a number of new powers from the federal government, including control over Employment Insurance.
The PQ will also focus on gaining enough support from the opposition to pass the new language law, Bill 14. The law would restrict the use of English in some cases, while at the same time promoting the use of French.
But with a minority government, Marois is facing numerous challenges.
The PQ has angered both student groups and university administrators in recent months by sending mixed messages about university tuition freezes.
"It's a real comedy of errors and we hope the government will clean up this mess," said Gérard Deltell, house leader for the opposition party Coalition Avenir Québec.
He said the Marois' government mishandled the issue of university funding.
"It's not a communication problem with the government — it's where they stand. That's the real problem," he said.
The Liberal opposition says along with the tuition issue, the government needs to focus on kickstarting the economy by helping out industry partners eager to tap into the province's gas and oil reserves.
"We're ready to collaborate, but co-operation goes both ways," said Gilles Ouimet, justice critic for the official opposition.