WASHINGTON - Lengthy lineups at the Canada-U.S. border. Long flight delays. A loss of lucrative American business contracts. The much-heralded Beyond the Border initiatives placed on the back burner indefinitely.

Canada will feel the sting if U.S. Congress fails this week to avert what's known as sequestration, an array of massive, mandated spending cuts to a host of federal departments and agencies aimed at slashing America's $16 trillion national debt.

On Thursday, $85 billion in cuts for this fiscal year alone are slated to kick in. All told, sequestration would amount to $1.2 trillion in budget reductions by 2021.

For Canadians, that means quick shopping trips to nearby border communities will almost immediately become a hassle as they're confronted with waits of several hours at busier entry points. They'll also feel the long hand of sequestration when they fly given there will be a ripple effect across North America as U.S. officials cancel flights and shutter some control towers and airports.

Canadian exporters, meantime, will face far longer cargo processing times at border entries as well. Business travellers will be ensnared in long lines at the border.

And Beyond the Border, the Canada-U.S. plan aimed at intelligence-sharing, easing and streamlining cross-border trade and harmonizing regulations, could also be shelved with U.S. Customs and Border Protection poised to cut the equivalent of almost 8,000 positions.

"This is such a large reduction in spending that nothing is going to go untouched, and things that are not really essential as far as the U.S. government is concerned will be on the chopping block," John Manley, head of the Canadian Council of Chief Executives, said in an interview Sunday.

"It's worrying for Beyond the Border and whether we'll continue to get the attention from the U.S. in terms of border issues."

The U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency has already moved from sequestration planning to sequestration implementation, preparing to reduce its work hours by the equivalent of over 5,000 border patrol agents and 2,750 inspectors.

It's warned those cuts could result in waits for as long as five hours at larger ports of entry, most of them in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia.

Manley also suspects pre-clearance U.S. customs facilities at several Canadian airports could be in jeopardy.

"It's an expense for the U.S. government," he said. "Canada doesn't have them at U.S. airports, after all, and it's always easier to cut programs that impact other countries rather than your own."

The Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters organization is warning of grim and swift repercussions.

In a memo sent to its members this weekend, the CME noted there's no evidence that any border contingency plan has been worked out between the U.S. and Canada as sequestration looms, even as officials continue to hammer out a two-year Beyond the Border action plan.

"If they're not talking, that's not good, and I can't get anyone to tell me whether they're working out a contingency plan," Birgit Matthiesen, the CME's Washington-based senior adviser, said Sunday.

"I have asked Ottawa, I've asked the embassy as well: 'Can someone tell me if this is being worked out?' I'm not getting any answers."

Matthiesen says she fears both Republicans and Democrats might be willing this time to allow the spending cuts to kick in during the latest crisis to push Americans to the brink of a fiscal precipice.

"This time I wonder if maybe they don't want to fix it, they don't want to punt it down the road for a few more months. Maybe they want to slash budgets, and then each side can point fingers at the other," she said.

If so, she adds, the impact on Canada will be enormous.

"The loss of federal contracts will be huge," she said. "Canadian businesses participate in a lot of bidding for lucrative federal government contracts in the U.S., so there will be that shrinking of business."

Manley says the Canadian defence industry will be particularly hard hit given the U.S. Pentagon is staring at a possible $500 billion in cuts across the entire defence department over the next decade.

"It will have an overwhelming consequence depending on how they apply the cuts," he said. "We're not a major defence spender as a country, but our industry is very integrated with the U.S. and dependent upon sales to the U.S. Department of Defense."

Economists are warning that sequestration will also lead to a higher jobless rate and could put the brakes to a fragile U.S. economic recovery, and "that's obviously never good for Canada," Matthiesen added.

She agrees that Beyond the Border will take a hit.

"If resources are cut, the ones that remain will be shifted to frontline operational services, so there will be fewer people working on the plan," Matthiesen predicted. "It's going to be put on the back burner."

Manley said Canadian officials are going to have to make the point to the White House that putting the brakes on the Beyond the Border initiatives is foolhardy, even amid a period of domestic austerity.

"Canada's going to have to be in D.C. making the case that if you want economic growth, this is part of that," he said. "You don't want to kill the growth side or to thwart the supply chains."

Two years ago, U.S. President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced a "shared vision" for the Canada-U.S. border. But both Canadian and American stakeholders have complained that progress has moved at a glacial pace as the U.S. grapples with its budget woes.

Sequestration loomed over a recent Canada-U.S. conference on Beyond the Border when an American official acknowledged budget concerns were hindering progress.

"It is fair to say we are facing some very difficult budget constraints," Ana Hinojosa, a director at U.S. Customs and Border Protection, told the meeting three weeks ago.

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  • The Rules Have Changed

    The biggest change to cross-border shopping is the increased allowances to duty-free purchases. Canadian travellers outside the country for more than 24 hours can now bring in up to $200 in goods. The previous limit was capped at $50. <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/blmurch/" target="_hplink">Photo courtesy of: Flickr/ blmurch </a>

  • The Rules Have Changed: Part II

    As of June 1, Canadians who find themselves outside of the border for 48 hours or longer will have their allowance double from $400 to $800. The limit for travellers outside of the country for more than seven days has also changed. <a href="http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/media/facts-faits/106-eng.html" target="_hplink">Their limit has increased by $50 from $750 to $800</a>.

  • It's All About Timing

    For those looking to capitalize on the new duty-free rules, here's some advice: plan accordingly as the new rules are still time sensitive. For example, Canadians can't claim duty-free status on any goods if their trip less than 24 hours. Also, the date you left Canada <a href="http://www.taxfreetravel.com/Canada Duty Free Exemptions" target="_hplink">doesn't count towards your trip length</a>, but the day you return can.

  • Personal vs Commercial Use

    The duty-free status still only applies if your purchases are for personal use. That means it can be for your house, a souvenir, or anything else for your own personal enjoyment. However, if it's anything for commercial use, expect to pay full duties. Also, while you can bring back gifts for other people under your duty-free allowance, that allowance can't be shared with other people.

  • The Rules To Alcohol Still Apply

    The rules regarding alcohol purchases outside of Canada still hold true, despite the increased in allowance. For example, you can only claim duty-free status if your trip is 48 hours or longer in length. Also worth noting is that only <strong>one</strong> of the following items can count towards your allowance: 1.14 L (40 oz.) of liquor; OR 1.5 L of wine; OR 24 X 355 ml (12 oz.) containers of beer.

  • Exemptions Exist

    Shoppers can expect to rake in many goods across the border with Canada's new rules, but certain items are still off limits. For example, certain fruits, meats and vegetables are prohibited from entering Canada as are weapons such as guns, mace, and pepper spray -- something worth noting if you find yourself at the local gun show.

  • The Rules To Tobacco Still Apply

    Much like alcohol, the rules to tobacco are still in effect. Canadians need to be outside of the country for at least 48 hours but can bring in any of the following as part of their duty-free purchase: 200 cigarettes; 50 cigars or cigarillos; 200 tobacco sticks; and 200 g (7 oz.) of manufactured tobacco.

  • Ready Your Receipts

    Now that the purchases have been made, all that's left is to get them back into Canada and that's where receipts come into play. Canadian Border Services Agency workers may ask for proof of any purchase and having them on hand may be the difference maker between a five-minute process and a five-hour delay. Receipts can also help verify how long your trip was based on the date of your purchases.

  • Don't Forget To Pack Your Goods

    Canadians can now make more purchases over the border but they still need to be sure that they can bring everything back. That's because the CBSA still limits the duty-free status to goods on your possession when returning. There is one exception to this rule though: travellers gone longer than seven days can have the duty-free status apply to their <a href="http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/media/facts-faits/106-eng.html" target="_hplink">goods delivered to them via mail, courier, or by a delivery agency.</a>