About 50 people gathered in front of the National Assembly on Thursday evening to march in support of free university tuition.
One demonstrator, André Bérubé, said he was disappointed that free tuition was not even on the table during last week's higher education summit.
"They clearly betrayed us," Bérubé said.
Police warned Thursday evening's protesters they were breaking the city bylaw, which demands an advanced itinerary be submitted for all protests.
When the demonstrators continued to advance, officers began to make arrests.
"They just want to scare us and that's not the way we have to live," said protester Morgane Marie-Pouliot.
"We were there to protest against something. It's our rights and they just stopped us."
Quebec City police said people were clearly warned about the bylaw.