Raonic, from Thornhill, Ont., needed just 70 minutes for the 6-4, 6-2 win.
The No. 13-ranked Raonic will face qualifier Ernests Gulbis of Latvia in the third round. Gulbis advanced on Tuesday with a 6-3, 6-4 win over Spain's Fernando Verdasco.
Raonic didn't need all of his serving power against No. 74 Roger-Vasselin, recording just seven aces.
The fifth-seeded Canadian never faced a break point in the win, which took his record to 2-1 in the pre-French Open campaign.
Raonic secured the opening set in 35 minutes with his seventh ace and quickly moved to 2-1 in the second. He trailed 0-30 as he served for the match leading 5-2, but quickly righted that wrong to advance on his first match point.
"I'm happy with how I started," said Raonic. "I was able to do a few things quite well. I'm pleased that I controlled play with my serve.
"I made the most of my opportunities and was happy to bounce back after being pretty disappointed last week. I feel good, I'm playing well and not doubting myself too much."
The win comes after a second-round loss to Finland's Jarkko Nieminen last week in Monte Carlo.
"I didn't think I was the lesser player, I just missed opportunities," Raonic said of the loss. "I don't think I was playing badly, but the loss just lingered. But I came here and got all of that cleared out of my mind. I was able to get here, get some work done and clear it all away."
Note to readers: This is a corrected story. An earlier version reported that Raonic was playing Gulbis in the quarter-finals.Suggest a correction