Jacques Delisle, 78, was automatically sentenced to life in prison after he was convicted of first-degree murder last June.
The retired Court of Appeal judge had requested to appeal the life sentence.
His lawyer had argued that assumptions made by the crown prosecutor in court could have prejudiced his client before the jury.
The body of Delisle's wife, Nicole Rainville, was found in the couple's Quebec City apartment in November 2009.
Rainville was found with a gunshot wound on her left temple, and Delisle told police his wife had taken her own life.