The new regulations say serious or repeat offences by a club or its fans could also lead to a team being banned from a tournament, such as the Champions League.
The measures, which were passed by a 99-per cent majority in a secret ballot of FIFA member countries, also dictate that players or officials found guilty of racist abuse in any game should be banned for at least five matches. The banned player or official will also be prevented from attending any football stadium during that sanction.
"We are doing something now," FIFA President Sepp Blatter said following the vote and after racism recently re-emerged in football with high-profile cases in Italy.
AC Milan's Ghanaian player Kevin-Prince Boateng walked off the field during a friendly against a lower-tier team after abuse from fans, while a Serie A match between Milan and Roma was stopped because of racist chanting toward Milan's black players from Roma fans.
That led FIFA to set up an anti-racism task force under Jeffrey Webb, a FIFA vice-president and the president of CONCACAF, with a mandate to look at stricter sanctions.
After the resolution was passed by FIFA's congress, it is now up to its 209 member countries to individually apply and enforce it.
UEFA has endorsed a tougher 10-match ban for racist abuse in matches in European competitions, while Liverpool and Uruguay striker Luis Suarez was banned for eight matches by England's Football Association for racially abusing Manchester United defender Patrice Evra in a Premier League game.