Jean-Pierre Duclos, 56, escaped on May 27 while he was being escorted from the minimum security Ste-Anne-des-Plaines federal penitentiary to the hospital for an unspecified medical condition.
He was apprehended by RCMP officers in downtown Magog yesterday while in a riding in a vehicle.
He has been living in Magog since his escape, according to police.
After his arrest, Duclos was taken to the Montreal police operations centre for questioning. He could be facing new charges, including escaping from custody.
Duclos is serving a life-sentence for first-degree murder for the 1991 murder of Danielle André in Laval.
The Correctional Service of Canada said at the time of Duclos's escape, he would have been eligible to apply for parole in a few years.