The WTA says the third-ranked Russian will miss the Oct. 22-27 tournament in Istanbul because of the right shoulder injury that has kept her sidelined for most of the second half of the year.
Sharapova says "I want to thank Istanbul for being a tremendous host and hope to play in Turkey sometime in the future."
The WTA says Petra Kvitova of the Czech Republic, Sara Errani of Italy and Serbia's Jelena Jankovic have qualified for the championships.
They join a field that already includes Serena Williams, Victoria Azarenka, Agnieszka Radwanska and Li Na.
The tournament features the top eight singles players and top four doubles teams.