The move followed a delay in proceedings due to chants from the defendants and then a defiant statement from Morsi, who refused to recognize the court's authority.
His comments came in response to the judge calling his name out after identifying him as a "defendant."
Morsi replied: "I am Dr. Mohammed Morsi, the president of the republic. I am Egypt's legitimate president."
He added: "I refuse to be tried by this court."
Egypt's state TV reported the judge suspended the hearing for about an hour after it started two hours later than scheduled, because of the defendants' unruly behaviour inside a courtroom cage, CBC's Derek Stoffel reported from Egypt.
Security officials say the delay was caused by Morsi's insistence not to change into the white prison uniform customarily worn by defendants, part of his refusal to recognize the trial's legitimacy.
Morsi finally relented and put on the uniform after refusing to change out of his grey suit all morning, Stoffel said.
The official MENA news agency says Morsi, who has been held at a secret military location since his ouster in a July coup, was flown by helicopter earlier Monday to the venue of his trial — a police academy in eastern Cairo.
Reuters quoted a security source as saying the defendants will be moved to Cairo's Tora prison.
Morsi and 14 senior members of his Muslim Brotherhood are on trial on charges stemming from a riot last December outside Morsi's Cairo palace that left at least 10 dead.
They could all face the death penalty if convicted.