DETROIT - When Mike Duggan recites the oath of office in January as Detroit's first white mayor in four decades, he may — in a way — give the eulogy to a period of racial divide that has defined much of the city's past.

Unofficial general election results Tuesday night showed Duggan defeating Wayne County Sheriff Benny Napoleon 55 per cent to 45 per cent with all of the city's 614 precincts reporting.

But Detroit officially could be bankrupt by the time Duggan moves into City Hall. He also will be expected to have solutions for lowering one of the highest violent crime rates in the country — in a city that struggles to respond to 911 calls — and fixing Detroit's many crumbling neighbourhoods. Public transportation is in shambles, as are other city services.

Those are things Paulette Warren wants corrected and it doesn't matter to her whether the person who does it is white, black, red or yellow.

"When you call 911 you want to know an ambulance is coming," said Warren, who is black and voted Tuesday for Duggan. "It's all about who can do the job. It's not about colour."

Race is as much a part of Detroit, its politics, citizenry and relationship with suburban neighbours as assembly lines and the cars that rolled across them.

In the 1950s, about 1.8 million people lived in Detroit, but the lure of new homes in fresh suburbs started an exodus from the urban core. A deadly race riot in 1967 saw parts of the city burn over several days and hastened white flight. And when a brash, black labour leader named Coleman A. Young was elected mayor in 1973, Detroit's growing black populace began to flex its political muscle.

But soon, the same suburbs that earlier welcomed white families became too attractive for the city's black middle class to ignore. Thousands of blacks also left Detroit for safer neighbourhoods and better schools, leaving parts of the city virtually empty. They also took their money and much of the city's tax base.

Detroit's population now is around 700,000 and expected to continue sliding.

State-appointed emergency manager Kevyn Orr says Detroit's debt is at least $18 billion. He has stopped making millions of dollars in bond debt payment and is trying to work out deals with some creditors while awaiting a federal judge's ruling on whether the city will be the largest in the country to be declared bankrupt.

"It's not black or white. It's green. It's who can bring money to Detroit to improve our city services," said black first-term Councilman Andre Spivey, who appeared Tuesday to have won his re-election bid in Detroit's fourth district. "A lot of people who are probably 45, 50 and older remember well when we had the last Caucasian mayor. For most folks, it's not an issue."

Detroit is more than 80 per cent black and until Duggan had not produced a strong white candidate for mayor since former police commissioner John F. Nichols challenged Young in 1973.

"When I started on this campaign, I was not under any illusion about the racial division in this country," Duggan said Tuesday night during his victory speech. "And I said from the beginning that the only way I could get past it was to sit with you . and get to know you one by one.

"At this moment what we have in common is much more powerful than what divides us. And now the real work begins."

Duggan will succeed Mayor Dave Bing, who decided not to seek re-election. He is Detroit's first white mayor since Roman Gribbs, who decided not to seek re-election for a term that ended in 1973.

Duggan moved to Detroit last year from Livonia, a predominantly white suburb just west of the city, to run for the job, but a residency issue forced him off the August primary ballot. He ran as a write-in and received the most votes.

He campaigned heavily on his past work as president and CEO of the Detroit Medical Center and said that when he took over in 2004, the system was facing hospital closures. It later was sold for about $365 million.

"He's got some business experience. You want someone in there who has experience on a major level," said Michael Twomey, who voted absentee for Duggan.

"I just want to see somebody in there with not just good intentions — somebody who can really do something ... I don't feel the city's had a strong mayor in a long time."

Twomey, a 67-year-old retired truck driver, said he is the only white resident on his northwest side block.

"They just want to see the city run and get back on its feet," he said of his black neighbours. "I think race has become less of an issue with the people with vested interest in the city — the homeowners."

Councilwoman Brenda Jones, who appeared to win her third consecutive term Tuesday, has an issue with Duggan not because he's white, but because he moved into Detroit to run for mayor.

Black Detroiters have voted to put whites in public office in the past, said Jones, pointing to Maryann Mahaffey who spent 31 years on the council beginning in the early 1970s.

"Maryann Mahaffey was a true Detroiter," said Jones, who is black. "So, is it about Detroit being ready for a white mayor or about Detroit being ready for a Detroiter? Duggan has not lived in Detroit. How can I see him as a real Detroiter?"

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  • Could Detroit Come Back After Bankruptcy?

    We combed through Detroit Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr's 150-page-plus restructuring plan he released to the public in June 2013, weeks before the city's bankruptcy filing, after meeting with bondholders. Orr met with those creditors to negotiate Detroit's structural long-term debt, now said to total over $18 billion. Along with finances, the plan proposes 10 years' worth of improvements, priorities and changes that will affect residents, businesses, neighborhoods and visitors. Click through the slideshow to read our analysis of how Detroit could change after bankruptcy. You can see the nitty-gritty details for yourself by <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/14/detroit-restructuring-plan-bankruptcy-kevyn-orr_n_3442263.html?utm_hp_ref=detroit" target="_blank">reading the full report here</a>.

  • Vacant Buildings

    Mayor Dave Bing launched a program in April 2010 with the goal of demolishing 10,000 vacant structures by the end of his term. Over 5,000 of those abandoned buildings have been torn down, with the remainder scheduled to go by the end of 2013. But there was never enough money to fully rid Detroit of its blighted buildings. Orr's report says a funding gap of $40 million exists before Bing's goal can be completed. And while 10,000 demolitions is an insanely high number, Orr's report says that only covers 13 percent of the city's vacant buildings, and 26 percent of those that have been deemed dangerous.

  • Neighborhoods

    Orr's restructuring plan presents a number of ways the city can speed up blight removal. One tactic involves coordinating and simplifying the myriad local, regional and national agencies and statutes that regulate demolitions. Another priority is moving blighted land through the demolition process faster, in order to return those properties to private ownership (Pages 72 and 73). Police and fire departments will integrate their data so demolitions can be targeted to reduce crime and arson. Orr's budget calls for $50 million annually in 2014 and 2015 to battle blight, to be increased to $100 million each year for 2016 through 2018. Some of that money will have to be raised through grants and public-private partnerships.

  • Pensions

    According to the city's preliminary analysis, Detroit hasn't kept up on its obligations to beneficiaries of the General Retirement System and Detroit's Police & Fire Retirement System. By how much? A staggering $3.5 billion, says Orr, who writes, "At this level of underfunding, the City would have to contribute approximately $200 million to $350 million annually to fully fund currently accrued, vested benefits. Such contributions will not be made under the plan."

  • Retiree Health Benefits

    Under Orr's plan, pension funds would receive a proportional (pro rata) share of $2 billion in notes that the city would issue. But since that share of $2 billion won't equal the total amount of unfunded pension costs, the report notes, pensioners should expect "significant cuts in accrued, vested pension amounts for both active and currently retired persons." According to the Detroit Free Press, retiree health benefits will likely be<a href="http://www.freep.com/article/20130614/NEWS01/306140084" target="_blank"> transferred to modified medical benefit plans</a> that will come into effect with the Affordable Care Act. Those over the age of 65 would be transitioned to Medicare.

  • Detroit Police

    Hiring a new police chief was the first task on Kevyn Orr's Detroit Police checklist, but it's not the only change he recommends. Orr envisions using a data-driven approach to restructure DPD from top-to-bottom. Another priority is improving officer morale and giving the force the tools they need to do their jobs: bulletproof vests, tasers, vehicles and functional IT. He's also a fan of the "Broken Windows" policing theory piloted last year in the city's Rosedale Park neighborhood. In total, Orr plans to spend $26 million more on DPD in 2014, with an additional $66 million investment over the next four years.

  • Unsecured Creditors

    It should come as no surprise to readers that Detroit is bonded to the hilt. Creditors may take a <em>huge</em> hit on payments from the city, reportedly as little as 10 cents on the dollar. Orr has stopped paying some debts entirely, and his plan calls for reinvesting that money into city services after bankruptcy.

  • Detroit Fire Department

    Aging fleets of fire engines and facilities to maintain them threaten the impact of the Detroit Fire Department, which responds to around 30,000 calls every year. The restructuring plan calls for at least $6 million in additional investment over the next five years, with an $18.4 million facility investment in 2017. But the restructuring plan doesn't talk about hiring any more fire investigators -- as of Dec. 2012, the <a href="http://www.myfoxdetroit.com/story/20388988/detroit-only-has-12-arson-investigators-for-5000-fires-annually" target="_blank">department only had 12 on staff</a> to investigate more than 5,000 suspicious fires set in the city's neighborhoods every year.

  • Public Transit

    The restructuring plan mentions that DDOT, Detroit's underfunded bus system, could eventually be merged with a private company or SMART, the suburban public transportation system. There's also talk of bringing DDOT under the control of the new <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/12/rta-detroit_n_3586137.html" target="_blank">regional transit authority</a>. A consultant is apparently studying long-term solutions, including outsourcing (Pages 74 and 75). While it could make more sense long-term to have all of the region's transit under one umbrella, the RTA is too new to make that determination and doesn't yet have funding. In the event of a merger, gains in savings and efficiency may be balanced with layoffs.

  • Belle Isle

    Managing and maintaining the 982-acre Belle Isle Park costs the city of Detroit some $6 million annually. Orr's verdict on Belle Isle comes as no surprise: He says the city "intends to enter into lease transaction with State on generally the same terms as the State’s prior proposal," though no timetable is given (Page 87). That means "Detroit's crown jewel" is slated to become a state park managed by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Under the <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/29/belle-isle-state-park-plan-dead_n_2575256.html" target="_blank">previous 30-year lease proposal</a>, pedestrians and bikers would still be able to access the park for free. Motor vehicles would have to pay an annual $11 Recreation Passport fee to the MDNR, good for accessing any state park.

  • 36th District Court

    Orr proposes possibly transitioning to "paperless" transactions at the 36th District Court (Page 73). Welcome to the 21st century, guys!

  • Residents Who Work Outside The City

    Orr's report proposes levying an income tax for reverse commuters -- those who live in Detroit but work outside the city (Page 81). The City loses approximately $30 to $45 million of income tax revenue every year, claimed to be 15 to 20 percent of the total tax collected, from reverse commuter non-filers. Expect new legislation to tax these residents.