It was not known whether Thursday's incident was related to the tabling of the bill on Quebec's charter of values.
Provincial police say the man wanted to give the briefcase to someone who is a regular visitor to the national assembly. They gave no more details about the identity of that person.
Police set up a perimeter and eventually determined that the briefcase contained an electronic device but no explosives.
The nature of the charges against the resident of Levis, Que., is to be revealed when he appears in court.