Cote was eligible to become a free agent Feb. 15.
Cote helped running back Jon Cornish run for a league-high 1,813 rushing yards en route to being named the league's most outstanding player. The 27-year-old Calgary native ran three times for five yards while adding eight catches for 75 yards and a TD and nine special-teams tackles.
"Rob is one of the Stampeders' unsung heroes and is an important part of the team on both offence and special teams," head coach and general manager John Hufnagel said in a statement. "It's always great to have local products on the team and I'm pleased that Rob has chosen to stay with the Stamps."
Cote has appeared in 111 regular-season and nine playoff games over his seven seasons in Calgary. He helped the Stampeders capture the '08 Grey Cup.
"I grew up as a Stampeders fan and I'm so proud to have played with the Stamps for my entire career," said Cote. "Re-signing with Calgary was an easy decision.
"This is a top-notch organization with a great group of players and I know we'll be a strong championship contender again in 2014."