Alex Radita's death in May 2013 was labelled suspicious after he was found in medical distress at his home in the northwest Calgary community of Citadel.
Rodica and Emil Radita had a history of not treating the boy's diabetes, according to a B.C. court document that details why a judge allowed the boy who spent time in social services to return to his parents care in 2005.
The Romanian immigrants, who were arrested by police on Tuesday morning, were described as being distrustful of authorities.
Tests revealed that the boy, who had Type 1 diabetes, died from a bacteria that arises from complications of neglect and starvation, according to police.
The teen's health declined to the point where he was confined to his room, bedridden and wearing diapers when he was found. He was home schooled so outsiders didn't see his deterioration, police said.
"Although the motive for not providing treatment is unknown, police do not believe it was based on religious beliefs," noted the statement from police.