The man was pronounced dead in hospital after being pulled from the home on Goodwood Road, near Queen Street and Bramalea Road, at around 6:30 a.m.
The man's sons, both teenagers, were also taken to hospital with minor injuries.
Brampton fire Chief Andy MacDonald says a neighbour called 911 and ran to rescue the family, breaking down the back door to help the boys escape.
Firefighters pulled the father from the home without vital signs and performed CPR after he was overcome by smoke.
The cause of the fire is not yet known but officials say it may have started on the main floor of the bungalow.
"It was my understanding that the neighbour was out walking when he saw the fire and heard the boys banging on the back door," MacDonald said. "He got the boys out quickly."