Officers were called to Markel's home on Friday morning, where he was found with an apparent gunshot wound, the Tallahassee Democrat reported.
Markel, 41, was taken to hospital and died Saturday. No suspects have been named and police are still investigating.
Florida State acknowledged the shooting, confirming the shooting on fsunews.com and saying he died around 11 a.m. ET.
“I am deeply saddened to report that our colleague Dan Markel passed away early this morning,” said FSU Law School dean Donald Weidner in the release. “As many of you are already aware, Dan was fatally injured in a shooting incident that took place yesterday and which is still under active investigation by local authorities."
Markel attended the University of Harvard and Cambridge University before eventually becoming a professor at Florida State's law school.
He appeared as a commentator on radio shows and wrote opinion pieces for The Atlantic, Slate and the New York Times. He was also a contributor on the law blog PrawfsBlawg.
"We are stunned and bereaved by his loss, and our thoughts go to his two little boys, who were precious to him, and to his family," read a recent post on PrawfsBlawg.
A memorial was held in Tallahassee on Sunday.
Florida State also announced there will be a special memorial event at the law school this fall.