Dogs show jealousy when their owners spend time with what appears to be another dog, suggesting that the emotion may have survivalist roots, U.S. researchers said Wednesday.
Scientists tested 36 dogs and their owners with an experiment in which the owners were told to play with three separate objects in front of their dog.
One of the objects was a toy dog that barked and wagged its tail when a button on it was pushed. The owners were told to play with it as if it were a real dog for one minute.
They were told to do the same in the next phase of the experiment with a toy jack-o-lantern pail, acting as if it were a dog and playing with it.
Finally, they were asked to read aloud a pop-up children's book that played a song, as if they were telling the story to a small child.
Certain dog behaviors were much more common when owners played with the toy dog versus the other objects, the researchers found.
For instance, dogs more often snapped, pushed their owners, pushed against the object and tried to get in between the owner and the toy dog than they did with the other toys.
The dogs were about twice as likely to push their owner (78 per cent of dogs did this) when he or she was playing with the toy dog than when the interaction involved the jack-o-lantern (42 per cent). Just 22 per cent did so with the book.
About 30 per cent of the dogs tried to get between their owner and the toy dog, and 25 per cent snapped at the stuffed canine.
The dogs came from a range of breeds, including dachshund, Pomeranian, Boston terrier, Maltese and pug. Almost half of those in the study were mixed breeds.
The research, led by Christine Harris and Caroline Prouvost from the University of California, San Diego, is published in the journal PLOS ONE.
"Our study suggests not only that dogs do engage in what appear to be jealous behaviors but also that they were seeking to break up the connection between the owner and a seeming rival," Harris said.
"We can't really speak to the dogs' subjective experiences, of course, but it looks as though they were motivated to protect an important social relationship."
Also on HuffPost
The teeny, tiny, four-pound Yorkshire terrier backpacked through the New Guinea jungle and cheered up injured soldiers. She's considered to be one of the first therapy dogs. And while a noble duty, this wasn't all little Smoky did to help the war effort.
Her owner, Cpl. Bill Wynne found her incredibly easy to train
. She performed intricate tasks, like stringing communication lines between the Philippines.
Smoky, who passed in 1957, has been honored by the "Smoky Yorkie Doodle Dandy and Dogs of All Wars Memorial
" statue in Cleveland, Ohio.
How They Are Toward Newspapers, 1973/Courtesy
If you recognize this snout, it's because Man Ray the Weimaraner has been plastered on book covers, magazines, magnets and souvenirs since the 70s. Man Ray is the dog who inspired artist William Wegman
to further develop his dog photography: While Wegman was experimenting with other kind of mediums, Man Ray kept on barging into the frame. Since the pup's interruption, Wegman has continued to produce admired dog-thematic artwork.
In 1982, the Village Voice dubbed the 80-pound canine "Man Of The Year." He appeared on "Late Night with David Letterman" that same year
, when Letterman called him a "global celebrity."
Only 6.2 percent of applicants are admitted into Yale
nowadays, but Handsome Dan has established a legacy that guarantees his successors an "in."
Yale's mascot has been a bulldog since 1889. The original Handsome Dan (pictured) is the first live college mascot in America
. According to Sports Illustrated, this good looking pup was purchased for five dollars from a local blacksmith.
It takes more than just a pretty face to be honored with the title of Yale's most good-looking dog: Dan's successors are selected based on factors like
their cleanliness, their demeanor toward children and their ability to walk near the band without getting riled.
When's the last time you protected the fate of sweet, beloved honey? This black lab named Baz is trained "to detect a deadly disease called American foulbrood that has been wiping out hives in south Australia," reports HuffPost UK
. Baz can sniff out the disease, and by doing so, save thousands of bees. The suit he wears protects him from being stung
, and also makes him appear extraordinarily adorable.
This black-and-white fox terrier accompanied her owner, Umberto Nobile (pictured), on a history-making flight across the North Pole in 1926. Nobile was the pilot of the Norge, the airship that made this historic trip.
In Titina's first official biography
, published on January 8, 1927 in The New York Times, she is described as "a dog marked by destiny, a dog of greatest character."
Not the original Saucisse
Hulton Archive via Getty Images
The famous psychoanalyst entrusted his Chinese Chow as a barometer for patients' temperament. He believed dogs were good judges of character and could help soothe nerves, writes Sam Stall in "100 Dogs Who Changed Civilization
." "For this reason, he allowed Jo-Fi to sit in on patient interviews. If someone was calm and at peace, the dog would lie down relatively near him or her; if someone was full of hidden tension, Jo-Fi would keep his distance."
The fluffy canine doubled as a time piece, according to Stall. After fifty minutes, Jofi would get up and go to the door, signaling to Freud that a session was over. Freud was able to delicately end an appointment, without seeming insensitive to the patient's needs.
People Magazine: August 23, 1999
In 1999, the Border Collie earned Southwest Florida International Airport the title of the "first commercial airport in the nation to use a dog
as part of its Wildlife Management Program to control bird activity on the airfield." Jet was "hired" to prevent mid-air collisions between planes and birds by charging flocks of birds whose roosting spots were too close to air traffic corridors. He even earned his own spot in People Magazine.
The dog saved Southwest Florida International millions
on plane repair and outdated preventative tactics. Jet retired in 2001, but his career success encouraged other airports to hire their own bird-chasing dogs.
Ginny, a schnauzer-Siberian husky mix, was bestowed the honorable title of "Cat of the Year" by the Westchester Cat Show in 1998 for her masterful ability to find and rescued endangered cat. According to NBC
, "Ginny once threw herself against a vertical pipe at a construction site to topple it and reveal the kittens trapped inside. Another time she ignored the cuts on her paws as she dug through a box of broken glass to find an injured cat inside."
"The mother Teresa of cats"
is said to have rescued more than 900 cats
over her lifetime.
Ginny was not trained to help the feline kind: "She just had this knack of knowing when a cat was in trouble," her owner said.
Bud is a road tripper's dream canine companion. The pit bull was picked up by automobile pioneer Horatio Nelson Jackson
for $15 in Idaho and helped his owner complete the U.S.'s first cross-country trip. Because the dust of the roads irritated his eyes, Bud was fitted with a neat pair of goggles.
While Bud didn't do any of the driving, his presence helped Jackson and his driving partner reach celebrity status, with the press following the journey very closely. Bud continued to accompany Jackson in future drives, and resided full-time at Jackson's home in Vermont.
The Seeing Eye, Inc.
Buddy was the United States' first formally trained guide dog for the blind. She pioneered the program for the Seeing Eye organization
, which now serves average of 260 people who are blind and visually impaired each year.
“Buddy delivered to me the divine gift of freedom,” said Morris Frank
, the first American to benefit from this program.
Before Air Bud or Lassie, there was Blair, a Border Collie who is considered to be the first doggy movie star
. Blair played the role of Rover in a 1905 silent, short British drama called "Rescued By Rover." In the film, directed by Cecil Hepworth, Rover leads
its owner to find a kidnapped baby and is considered a hero. Blair continued to star in short features, and her performance in the popular film established "Rover" as a very popular dog name.
If you're feeling a bit starstruck, you can watch the film here
"Martha My Dear," The Beatles' sweet, poppy track, released in 1968, was inspired by Paul McCartney's eponymous English sheepdog. Martha was McCartney's first pet, and he loved her, well, dearly. McCartney is the only Beatles member to appear on this track, and he croons: "Martha my dear you have always been my inspiration/Please/Be good to me Martha my love/Don't forget me Martha my dear."
McCartney speaks of his sheepdog in Barry Miles' "Paul McCartney, Many Years From Now
." The musician says, "She was a dear pet of mine. I remember John [Lennon] being amazed to see me being so loving to an animal. He said, 'I’ve never seen you like that before.' I’ve since thought, you know, he wouldn’t have. It’s only when you’re cuddling around with a dog that you’re in that mode, and she was a very cuddly dog."
If you had Jim The Wonder Dog on your side today, you might be rolling in dough: The all-knowing Llewelyn setter had psychic ability beyond that of a Magic 8 Ball. Throughout the 1930s, the dog was credited with possessing powers beyond mortal comprehension
. He allegedly picked the winner of the Kentucky Derby seven years in a row
by placing a paw on the winner listed on a piece of paper with all of the entires. He guessed the Yankees would win the 1936 World Series (he was right) and he could detect the sex of pregnant woman's unborn baby. Jim was also credited with being multi-lingual and able to understand morse code.
Dr. A. J. Durant, head of the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Missouri, said
that the pooch "possessed an occult power that might never come again to a dog in many generations." A park in Marshall, Misouri was constructed in 1999 to honor Jim and all his wonder.
On November 3, 1957, this Russian pup was one of the first animals to be launched into space. Laika, a stray found on the streets of Moscow, paved the way to manned spaceflight. Sadly, the dog did not survive the mission and died from overheating
hours after launch.
In 2008, a small monument
to honor Laika was built near the military research facility that set her up for the launch. The monument shows Laika standing on top of a rocket.
Photo by Getty. Zanjeer not pictured.
Stubby's short tail earned him his name, but his talent and dedication earned him his army title. The brindle pooch became the official mascot of the 102nd Infantry, 26th Yankee Division. When the division shipped out for France, Stubby was hidden in the coal bin on board. He was allowed to stay with his troops, and battled on the front-lines.
According to the National Museum of American History,
Stubby quickly assimilated with his fellow soldiers: "He learned the bugle calls, the drills, and even a modified dog salute as he put his right paw on his right eyebrow when a salute was executed by his fellow soldiers. Stubby had a positive effect on morale, and was allowed to remain in the camp, even though animals were forbidden."
Stubby had an aptness for detecting gas, and saved many soldiers from injury. He even alerted paramedics of men wounded in the trenches. After capturing an enemy German spy, the dog was promoted to Sergeant, becoming the first dog to be given rank in the United States Armed Forces.