Sgt. Audrey-Anne Bilodeau of the Sûreté du Québec said the incident happened around 1:15 p.m. ET in St-Zénon, in Quebec's Lanaudière region.
After the victim's snowmobile hit the oncoming machine, he was ejected from the vehicle and fell into a ravine, hitting a tree.
Bilodeau said investigators are studying two main hypotheses as the reason for the collision. First, it's possible the victim was not travelling at an appropriate speed for all the twists and turns on that trail.
Second, Bilodeau said, it's also possible he made a false manoeuvre.
The other snowmobile driver was not injured.
This week is the International Week for Snowmobile Safety. Every year, several people die while snowmobiling on Quebec trails.