Blais takes over from Yves Bolduc, who quit politics yesterday after a series of controversies.
Blais, the MNA for Charlesbourg, a riding in the Quebec City area, was previously minister of employment and social solidarity.
That position was handed to Sam Hamad, who will continue to serve as labour minister.
Pierre Arcand, meanwhile, will fill Hamad's old role as minister responsible for the Côte-Nord.
In his role as education minister, Blais will be faced with the challenge of consolidating the province's school boards. He will also need to address union strife and the possibility of a strike among some university faculties.
Blais has plenty of university experience.
He has a doctorate in philosophy from Laval University, where he went on to teach.
He most recently served as dean of the faculty of social sciences at the university before making the switch to politics last year.