The International Tennis Federation said the 29-year-old Odesnik tested positive for several banned substances, including steroids, during tests in December and January.
The ban was back-dated to Jan. 30 and will run until Jan. 29, 2030.
Odesnik was first sanctioned in 2010 for the possession of human growth hormone. Odesnik was off the tour form April 2010 to August 2011 after pleading guilty in Australia to importing HGH. He denied using the drug, and repeatedly said he never tested positive.
The ITF originally banned him for two years, but cut the penalty in half, saying he co-operated with investigators. Andy Murray and other players later criticized Odesnik, wondering aloud in what way the American might have co-operated with doping authorities.
"Bye bye Wayne... Good riddance," Murray, a two-time Grand Slam champion, tweeted Wednesday.
At last year's U.S. Open, Odesnik earned a wild-card but lost to eventual finalist Kei Nishikori in the first round. It was the first time he played in the tournament's main draw since 2009, shortly before his first ban.
This year, he lost in qualifying ahead of the Australian Open.