The crowd, which appeared to be in the thousands, included representatives from First Nations, environmental and student groups, and activists bussed in from around Canada.
The march ended in front of Quebec City's Parliament where demonstrators assumed a formation representing a thermometer.
The organizers' goal was to encourage the premiers to pursue climate protection and renewable green energies while foregoing tar sand expansion and associated pipeline projects.
Organizers issued a news release saying the march was proof that Canadians want meaningful action and government leadership on climate change.
"Our political leaders must accept this responsibility, put in place ambitious measures to combat climate change and keep tar sands pressure out of provincial climate talks," said Christian Simard of Nature Quebec.
The provincial and territorial leaders will discuss reducing greenhouse gas emissions and encouraging a low-carbon economy.
One of the other stated goals of the Quebec summit is to determine what role the provinces can play leading up to the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris in late 2015.
Other marches were held in solidarity in other Canadian cities including Vancouver, Halifax and Peterborough, Ont.
Also on HuffPost