Kathleen Wynne and Philippe Couillard issued a joint statement Friday saying Harper's latest comments on the issue don't reflect the consensus the premiers reached when most of them met in Quebec City this month.
Harper said on Thursday that his government won't bring in any carbon taxes and that Canada's targets for the next international climate change conference this year will likely deviate from those of the U.S.
The statement from the two premiers says Harper's view that emission reduction plans are designed to put more money in government coffers does not reflect the view of the provinces.
Wynne and Coulliard say Canadians are worried about climate change and what it is costing the environment.
The statement claims most of the progress on emission reduction in Canada has been due to provincial action.
"Let’s make real progress on climate change," the statement said.
In Quebec City, the premiers called on the federal government to become more involved in emission reduction, though they don't agree on the best way to achieve that.
Ontario and Quebec are working on cap-and-trade system on carbon where businesses will have a greenhouse gas quota and be able to sell credits. Companies that want to emit more carbon can buy credits from those who are able to reduce their carbon footprint.
Saskatchewan favours creating clean coal technology to achieve a greener province.
The United States announced last month that it plans to cut emissions 26 to 28 per cent by 2025.
Harper did not say which countries Canada might be closest to and added that the new targets would involve some further regulation of the energy sector and would be done in a way that does not kill jobs.
The latest emissions inventory from Environment Canada shows the country's overall greenhouse gas output climbed 1.5 per cent between 2012 and 2013, continuing a slow upward trend since 2009.
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