Crosby, who was added to the roster earlier this week following the Pittsburgh Penguins' first-round playoff loss, also earned an assist and shone on a line with fellow NHLers Nathan MacKinnon and Jason Spezza.
Spezza, who led the attack with two goals and an assist, was named player of the game for Canada.
MacKinnon scored and added two assists, while Matt Duchene and Tyler Toffoli also found the back of the net.
Arizona Coyotes goalie Mike Smith had his shutout bid spoiled by former NHLer Kaspars Daugavins at 12:05 of the third period.
The Canadians took control of the game in the first period, outscoring Latvia 3-0. MacKinnon had Canada's first goal at 9:57 before Spezza made it 2-0 at 13:04.
Duchene made it a three-goal game at 14:11.
Toffoli put the Canadians ahead 4-0 at 2:20 of the second period before Spezza scored again at 3:04.
Daugavins scored Latvia's lone goal at 12:06 of the third. Crosby converted a penalty shot at 19:37.
Canada plays Germany on Sunday at 10:15 a.m. ET.