If Bill 44 is adopted, it would be forbidden to smoke e-cigarettes in public places.
"You won't be able to smoke anywhere you smoke a real cigarette. You won't be able to smoke in a restaurant. You'll have to be nine metres from the door...All the laws that are there for regular cigarettes, you're going to have to respect that," said Lucie Charlebois, Quebec's junior minister for public health, who tabled the bill.
Merchants would also be prohibited from selling e-cigarettes to minors.
The bill also cracks down on second-hand smoke, calling for a ban on smoking inside a vehicle when a minor under the age of 16 is present.
No smoking on terrasses
The current smoking ban in bars or restaurants would also be extended to include terrasses.
In addition, the government says it plans to ban flavoured tobacco, which is generally popular with young smokers.
"What we want to do is prevent youths from starting to smoke...For me, as a grandmother, I do not want to see my grandchildren exposed to that," Charlebois said, adding that consultations will be held to hear from people in the industry before MNAs vote on the bill.