The sixth-seeded Bouchard, from Westmount, Que., went down 6-4, 6-4 to the Frenchwoman, who is ranked 54th in the world.
Last season Bouchard reached the semifinals of the French and Australian Opens and made the Wimbledon final, but she has failed to carry that high level of play into this year. Bouchard has now lost eight of her last nine matches.
Vancouver's Vasek Pospisil, the only other Canadian entered in the singles draws, was also eliminated Tuesday, losing 6-3, 7-6 (5), 6-1 to Portugal's Joao Sousa in the men's tournament.
Pospisil, ranked 53rd in the world, committed 45 unforced errors to Sousa's 16. The 50th-ranked Sousa converted seven of 14 break chances while Pospisil was 2-for-5.
Milos Raonic of Thornhill, Ont., Canada's top male singles player, is missing the tournament after recent foot surgery.
Nadal extends win streak
Rafael Nadal didn't really get much of a test in the first round.
The nine-time French Open champion began his bid for title No. 10 with a 6-3, 6-3, 6-4 victory over Quentin Halys, an 18-year-old wild-card entry from France who is ranked 296th and had never played a match at a major tournament.
Nadal has won 67 of his 68 career matches at Roland Garros, including the last 36 in a row.
Wozniacki breezes through
It was a tricky test, but Caroline Wozniacki passed it smoothly.
The former top-ranked player from Denmark stopped Karin Knapp's good run on clay this season with a 6-3, 6-0 win to reach the second round.
Knapp arrived in Paris on the back of her second career title at the Nuremberg Open last week and with an 8-2 record on clay. But she was no match for the fifth-seeded Wozniacki, who made it to the quarter-finals at Roland Garros five years ago.
Wozniacki saved the only break point she faced in the first set and limited her mistakes to nine unforced errors.
Petra Kvitova also made it through to the second round after a tougher-than-expected struggle.
The two-time Wimbledon champion edged 80th-ranked Marina Erakovic of New Zealand 6-4, 3-6, 6-4.
On a half-empty Court 3, Jelena Jankovic was the first loser among the seeded players in action on Tuesday. The 25th-seeded Jankovic, a three-time semifinalist in Paris, lost 6-3, 6-4 to qualifier Sesil Karatantcheva.
Cilic looks sharp
On the men's side, reigning U.S. Open champion Marin Cilic eased into the second round by beating Robin Haase 6-2, 6-4, 6-2.
It was Cilic's first Grand Slam match since winning his title in New York in September. He missed the Australian Open in January because of an injured shoulder.
David Ferrer also made it through to the second round. The runner-up at Roland Garros two years ago, the Spaniard recorded his 300th career match win on his favourite surface with a 6-1, 6-3, 6-1 win over 94th-ranked Lukas Lacko on Court Suzanne Lenglen.
In 13 straight appearances at the clay-court major, the seventh-seeded Ferrer has always won his opening match.