Const. Derek Black said the police were called about a backhoe, without any lights, driving westbound on the Trans-Canada Highway about 25 kilometres west of Fredericton at 3:40 a.m. on Tuesday.
He said the police made several unsuccessful attempts to get the backhoe to pull over.
The pursuit finally ended near King's Landing, where police put down a spike belt.
Black said the Fredericton Police Force assisted the RCMP in getting the backhoe to finally stop.
Once the backhoe was brought to a halt, Black said a 27-year-old Alberta man was arrested.
Black said alcohol is believed to be a factor.
The man, who is still in police custody, is expected to face charges later on Tuesday.
Ross Mathers, a spokesman for MRDC, the company that maintains the highway from Long's Creek to Moncton, said the backhoe hit the guard rail in at least three different places.
He estimates it will cost $5,000 to $8,000 to fix the damage to the guardrail, and adds that the backhoe also did some damage to the asphalt.