The native of Cap-aux-Meules, Que., defeated Trinidad and Tobago's Njisane Phillip in the final, sweeping the first two races in the best-of-three set.
Hersony Canelon of Venezuela won bronze.
Phillip came into the race as the Games record-holder in the event, posting a time of 9.977 seconds in 2011 in Guadalajara, Mex.
Barrette helped Canada win gold on the men's team sprint race earlier this week.
The men's sprint was the lone medal event on Saturday night's schedule.
Canada leads the way with five gold medals.
Six finals go Sunday, the last day of the track cycling competition.
Note to readers: This is a corrected story. A previous version had Canada winning four cycling gold instead of five.