Mainstream beauty standards are rough when you‚Äôre a person of colour. Growing up, I had to deal with aunts who would pinch my round, Filipino nose to make it slimmer. Kids would ask why my multi-creased eyelids didn‚Äôt look like "other Asians," and I would repeatedly explain why to them, TLC-style: No, I‚Äôve never had surgery; No, I wasn‚Äôt trying to look like them.
I‚Äôd hear stories from family and friends who used to wash their faces with stinging lemon juice to make their skin whiter, or who would edit their selfies to make themselves look paler.
It's a fact of life that your hair is always something to be touched or commented on. Clothes in nude shades are never actually your nude.
‚ÄĒ HuffPost BlackVoices (@blackvoices) August 21, 2015
So it was brilliant to see the fashion industry begin to embrace inclusive representation in 2015, and the multitude of body types that came with that acceptance. Eight black women seemed to epitomize a diversity tipping point when they appeared on several major U.S. magazine covers in September.
Trans visibility, brought to the forefront by celebrities like Laverne Cox, was bolstered by Caitlyn Jenner‚Äôs Vanity Fair cover in July. Curvy models like Ashley Graham headlined campaigns and magazine covers across the United States.
Along with HuffPost Canada Style, I wanted to see if a similar diversity "boom" was being mirrored on Canadian newsstands.
‚ÄĒ VANITY FAIR (@VanityFair) June 1, 2015
Although print media has been dwarfed by the digital age, magazine covers are still relevant. Since the early 1900s, magazines have deliberately used models on their covers to entice readers. It was only in the 1960s, when Cosmopolitian introduced teasing headlines on their covers, that words became important to the cover equation.
Today, cover models remain symbolic declarations of a magazine‚Äôs identity. They capture who‚Äôs important in society or "breaking the Internet" (see Kim Kardashian‚Äôs racially insensitive Paper cover). And they sometimes make history; Jenner's coming out will always be linked to her iconic white silk bodysuit and Vanity Fair's brand.
And for its best fashion magazine covers of 2015 contest, the American Society of Magazine Editors chose mesmerizing covers featuring Venus Williams and Lupita Nyong‚Äôo as its top finalists.
Knowing all this, I was hopeful that 2015 was the year Canadian fashion magazine covers would reflect our country‚Äôs diverse mix.
But that‚Äôs not what I found at all.
The first question: Which magazines should we look at?
We decided to restrict our survey to the most popular fashion or style-focused magazines from 2015. Most were monthly or seasonal and were widely available across Canada. All were written in English, except for two in French. All covers, including variations or special edition covers, were counted. Only issues that could be found in back issue archives or online were included.
We chose 10 well-known magazine brands: Flare, LouLou, Fashion, Elle Canada, Elle Quebec, Pure, Glow, Dress to Kill, Sharp, and The Kit Compact.
I didn‚Äôt include special interest and niche magazines that were lower in circulation, as they would not accurately reflect the mainstream media industry‚Äôs outreach to general audiences. However, I found niche magazines that targeted specific demographics, such as South Asian women, featured people of colour on almost every cover.
What did we mean by "diversity"?
We knew we wanted to look at representation on Canada‚Äôs magazine covers. But what kind of representation were we talking about?
I chose to use the term "person of colour" to define individuals who are from non-white descent, and "white" to describe people of Caucasian, European descent. I included people with mixed heritages and those of non-European descent in the people of colour group. And this is where it started to get complicated.
I grappled with the definition of "race." Because race is a social construct that depends on culture and location, a glance at a magazine cover can‚Äôt be all that determines if a person is white. For example, individuals who may "look white" but come from non-European descent, like Jennifer Lopez, counted as people of colour. When the cover star‚Äôs ethnic identity was known or searchable online, I could categorize them with certainty. Often, I‚Äôd end up sleuthing through cover models' biographies, playing a (well-intentioned) race detective. But when I couldn't find any info, I had to rely on how they presented and referred to themselves as. Because of this, my count of "white" cover stars might include white-passing individuals who actually identify otherwise.
On LGBTQ representation
In an attempt to collect data on other forms of diversity, I realized my terminology would have to be specific. Since there is no one way someone can be transgender or intersex, and because many trans individuals face barriers that prevent them from being public about their identities, I could only look for "openly trans" representation on covers.
And similarly, because sexuality is fluid and sometimes met with opposition, other LGBQ representation also meant cover stars who publicly identified as such.
I found myself cringing as I typed in names in search bars, along with words like "orientation," "is gay," "is queer," "girlfriend," "dating history," or "personal life." Instead of concrete statements from the celebrities or models themselves, I‚Äôd see rumours about their sexualities from other sites.
Visible disabilities (emphasis on "visible")
I included visible disabilities in my search, because disability representation is lacking in the fashion industry.
A "visible disability" means one that can be seen or identified by others, so the use of a wheelchair or having a mobility impairment could qualify as a visible disability, for example.
But many disabilities are "invisible," such as deafness, cognitive or mental health disorders, and brain injuries, among others. So some cover stars might be living with disabilities, but readers (myself included) can't tell from the cover unless it's identified in text or through another means.
Then came the question of body size...
I didn‚Äôt seek to compare different sizes on magazine covers. Although representation of diverse body sizes is important, deciding which cover stars qualified felt too subjective. The term plus-size is something that not everyone agrees with, so it wasn‚Äôt something I was willing to use in the research.
After surveying 10 leading fashion magazines in Canada, here‚Äôs what I found:
- Of the 124 people featured on 80 covers published in 2015, only 13 could be identified as people of colour. Seven cover stars were black, three were Asian, two were Latina, and one was indigenous.
- White or white-passing people were featured on 95 per cent of covers, landing on 76 of the 80. Some magazine brands had no identifiable people of colour on their covers for the entire year, while others had one person of colour featured in group covers with white models.
- LouLou had the highest number, with six people of colour featured on five of their eight covers in 2015. However, they all appeared on covers alongside white models.
Of the 13 people of colour, 10 of them were featured in group covers with either one or more white fellow cover stars. Guess that old notion that racialized people can't sell magazines is still alive and well.
- From the cover stars I could search, none publicly identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual or queer.
- Openly trans people were missing on 2015 covers in Canada. Cis women appeared to be well-represented.
- Men were rarely spotted on fashion magazines, and those that were on covers were more likely to be older than the twenty-something women featured. When it came to age, five male cover stars could be verified to be more than 40 years old, whereas only two female cover stars were. Just one man was a person of colour.
- People with visible disabilities were not given any visibility, nor were any mobility devices like wheelchairs, hearing aids, or guide animals. Even eyeglasses were rarely shown on covers, or any item that would suggest cover stars were anything but able-bodied.
- An obvious trend I noticed was that there were barely any variations in body size on covers. Most models looked thin enough that they could buy clothes from mainstream brands without having to worry about fit or tailoring.
It wasn't hard to spot the pattern. When it comes to representation and inclusion, Canadian fashion covers have a long way to go.
The dearth of fashion media diversity on is not unique to our country. In spite of the black women who dominated September's covers, Fashionista found that just 27 of 136 U.S. fashion magazine covers printed in 2015 had models of colour. Worldwide, the Fashion Spot reports that more than 22 per cent of fashion magazines in 2015 had people of colour on their covers, a slight increase from the year before, when white people were five times more likely than people of colour to appear on international covers.
Black models on the covers: Jourdan Dunn for Vogue UK (after 12 years) Liya Kebede for Vogue Paris (after 5 years) pic.twitter.com/IiVyNjzMzm
‚ÄĒ xx (@leemcquxxn) April 20, 2015
"They say if you have a black face on a magazine cover it won‚Äôt sell, but there‚Äôs no real evidence for that. It‚Äôs lazy," Dunn said. "You always hear 'there aren‚Äôt enough black models,' which is BS. It‚Äôs all about these dead excuses."
Considering Canada‚Äôs sizable racialized population, those excuses don't hold water here, either. Statistics Canada reports that as of 2011, more than 6.2 million Canadians are non-white visible minorities, out of Canada‚Äôs 35.16 million population. That's more than 19 per cent of our country who could easily be visible in the media they consume, which is plenty: ZenithOepedia estimated Canadians spent about 492 minutes consuming media in 2015.
And lack of representation is bound to have an effect on them. University of Toronto professor Minelle Matani's research into minorities in Canadian media showed that misrepresentation of ethnic groups led to normalizing stereotypes.
"Often unequipped with direct experience of Canadian cities given the sheer vastness of this nation, Canadians rely upon the media to tell them about their country," Matani reports. "... Through demeaning characterizations and an absence of
nuanced representations, minorities are made to feel as if they do not belong."
And no representation at all suggests that diverse lives aren't as important or deserving of attention. Omitting people of colour from a specific form of entertainment, for example, gives the message that racially diverse individuals aren't as beautiful or as wanted as the beautiful qualities white individuals have.
I've seen the impact of underrepresentation first-hand, in the form of internalized self-hatred, nose-pinching and so forth. I've also seen the benefits of reversing this. My sister, who'd lament her skin colour as a kid, now berates her friends who layer on ghostly pale layers of foundation that don't match their skin colour. Cousins of mine turn to non-Western forms of entertainment, like K-Pop, to see idols who look a little more like them take centre stage.
With 2015 behind us, 2016‚Äôs covers so far aren‚Äôt impressing me much. Of the Canadian January issues I've seen, all five of the cover stars on four magazine covers are white.
What I‚Äôve uncovered about the lack of diversity in this industry tells me fashion magazines aren‚Äôt meant for people like me. I‚Äôm tempted to feel like my efforts to discover diversity were futile, but in retrospect, delving into the covers made me think critically about diversity.
I was consciously scanning and re-scanning the covers, because cover stars' ethnicities were a lot more complicated than the average consumer might see. There were subsets to whiteness too, like Jewish representation and mixed heritage representation, that were lost in the sea of identical features. A hurried look at a newsstand would have most people see them as white. The nuances were lost.
I really doubt any of these magazines were deliberately using models and celebrities because they were white. Chances are, there are people of colour working in fashion media too, people from diverse backgrounds who grew up consuming the same media I have. What‚Äôs really at fault is complacency with industry traditions, the internalizing and acceptance of the ‚ÄúThat‚Äôs just the way it is‚ÄĚ reasoning we've all heard ad nauseum.
If that‚Äôs the case, those with editorial power need to learn how to be consciously aware of what status quo their cover stars are maintaining or disrupting. Showing different people on covers, and not just in group shots or once a year, takes a deliberate and continuing commitment to inclusion. It‚Äôs a plunge that can make cover imagery more complex and more nuanced.
And once they make that move, people like me might start double-taking when we pass by. On my daily commute, as I did my ritual of scanning magazine racks (and then ignoring them all), I noticed a battered issue of NOW, a Toronto weekly paper that had done the unthinkable: it had put a naked, laughing, black woman on its cover.
ELLE U.S. appears to have listened to the uproar caused by their 2015 "Women in TV" issue's portrayal of a single woman of colour. Four of the five stars on the 2016 edition are women of colour, each with her own cover.
ELLE's example could pave the way for an encouraging trend of rewriting industry standards and using backlash as teachable moments. The fact that each woman of colour was given the same exposure white cover stars had in last year's issue suggests the magazine is thinking deeply about the kind of representation they're putting forward. In turn, I guarantee this will make people like me want to start reading.
So, what do you say, Canada?
Here‚Äôs the thing about wearing a bathing suit: it isn‚Äôt brave. Regardless of size, shape, height, or any other factors, to wear beach-appropriate clothing while on a beach isn‚Äôt brave, especially when ‚Äúbrave‚ÄĚ is being used as a pejorative ‚ÄĒ a.k.a. it‚Äôs ‚Äúso brave‚ÄĚ to wear a bathing suit if you‚Äôre outside the size 2 spectrum. And blogger Jessica Kane shut that down. Taking to Instagram after she was heralded for being ‚Äúbrave‚ÄĚ to beach it sans cover-up, she reminded followers that that she spends her time ‚Äúworrying about things [she] CAN control, and this day [she] was only thinking about how fab [she] felt.‚ÄĚ Which is the way that it should be. Shut it down, brave-sayers, and stop perpetuating two-dimensional beauty ideals.
Three cheers for Modcloth: earlier this year, the online retailer dropped its ‚Äúplus‚ÄĚ section and amalgamated its clothing sizes ‚ÄĒ which was a step in the right direction, especially after the brand had said there were ‚Äúroad blocks‚ÄĚ to offering a broad range of sizes. ‚ÄúI think there is still an outdated notion in the [fashion] industry that ‚Äėplus‚Äô should be separate because it‚Äôs less aspirational, or because that consumer is less fashion-forward, or less willing to spend on herself,‚ÄĚ said founder Susan Gregg Koger. ‚ÄúBut what we‚Äôre hearing and seeing from our community is that it is simply not true.‚ÄĚ Accurate, Susan.
Say what you will about social media, but this year, its ability connect people and to inspire change was unparalleled ‚ÄĒ especially on the fashion front. Hashtags like #ThisIsPlus, #EffYourBeautyStandards (though it started last year), #PlusIsEqual, #DropThePlus, #ImNoAngel (started by Lane Bryant), and #BodyLove were a fast and effective way to make a statement while simply being yourself. Through Twitter and Instagram, followers could connect with each other and introduce movements to their own audiences, spawning new ways to talk about fashion, beauty, size and why the existing norms are absolutely nonsensical and need a revamp.
The Victoria‚Äôs Secret Fashion Show is a major production (as we all know), and long, volumized hair extensions play a pivotal role in it. But this year, model Maria Borges did her. Opting out of a wig or extensions, Borges told her agent that she wanted to walk in the show with her natural hair, and that‚Äôs exactly what she did. Which is even cooler when you realize how her natural hair makes her feel: ‚ÄúSince I‚Äôve gone natural, I feel younger and fresher,‚ÄĚ she told i-D. ‚ÄúWith my short hair I don‚Äôt feel like I need makeup ‚ÄĒ maybe I‚Äôll use a little foundation, but I‚Äôll skip blush or lipstick.‚ÄĚ Best.
This autumn, Trans Models announced its launch in New York, officially becoming the country‚Äôs third trans agency. Founded by Peche Di, the model-turned-agency founder sought to create a place in the city that represented transgender talent specifically, and signed 19 models (plus makeup and hair stylists) to Trans Models, which seeks to offer an alternative to the current industry landscape.
Our parents grew up with her (and if you‚Äôre acquainted well with the beauty industry ‚ÄĒ specifically Clairol ‚ÄĒ you‚Äôve seen her before too), but it wasn‚Äôt until this month that Tracey Norman revealed as America‚Äôs first black transgender model. In a piece for New York Magazine, the now 63-year-old Norman opened up about her exclusive contract with Avon, her debut on the box of Clairol Born Beautiful hair dye, and how the industry had no idea she was trans. The woman‚Äôs a force to be reckoned with, so make sure to read the full story here.
September brought some exciting news for fans of Ashley Graham: the plus-size model debuted her own lingerie collection (Modern Boudoir) for Addition Elle. And while the line itself was exciting, so was Graham‚Äôs brand of empowerment in which she reminded that conforming or aspiring to a certain size serves no one. ‚ÄúI love my body, I love my super-hourglass shape, and I love showing it off,‚ÄĚ she has said. ‚ÄúYoung girls don‚Äôt have much to look at, curvey women are not on covers of magazines, they‚Äôre not talked about on social media as much as other celebrities. Jennifer Lawrence is the media‚Äôs poster girl for curves ‚ÄĒ she‚Äôs tiny.‚ÄĚ
Proving the fashion industry‚Äôs still got a long way to go, it took until December 2015 for the first plus-size male model to appear on the cover of a magazine. (Come on, guys.) But Tremayne Williams used his opportunity to open up to the magazine about embracing the idea of ‚Äúplus size,‚ÄĚ as well as his plans to make 2016 a year in which he helps advance male plus-size models as a whole. ‚ÄúTo me, being plus size is not something you should be ashamed of,‚ÄĚ he told the magazine. ‚ÄúI know I‚Äôm not a small man and that‚Äôs fine. All women are beautiful and plus size women should own their beauty. You are PLUS!‚ÄĚ
Last season, "American Horror Story‚Äôs" Jamie Brewer became the first person with Down's syndrome to walk the runway during Fashion Week, and then this September, 18-year-old Madeline Stuart followed in the actress‚Äô footsteps. Walking during New York Fashion Week for FTL Moda, the Australian model made some serious professional bounds after her Facebook photos went viral a few months before, so here‚Äôs to seeing her walk a lot more as the fashion weeks begin this winter ‚ÄĒ especially since her social media presence rivals the industry‚Äôs biggest names (and the woman‚Äôs personal sense of style is seriously beyond).
And earlier this year (specifically in February), FTL Moda broke barriers again as their F/W fashion show featured models in wheelchairs to further promote diversity in the industry. Working in conjunction with Models of Diversity ‚ÄĒ an agency that campaigns for the diversity of models and talent ‚ÄĒ the show also featured British personal trainer, Jack Eyers, who‚Äôd lost his leg at 16, and featured designs by Italian designer Antonio Urzi. So more of this in 2016, thank you.
For reasons I hope none of us understand, Interview magazine put Kylie Jenner in a gold-plated wheelchair, and then slapped that image on the cover of its December issue. Predictably, there was a backlash, with 32-year-old Gemma Flanagan (a disabled model from Liverpool) recently posing the same way as Jenner to prove just how inappropriate Interview‚Äôs choice was. Worse yet? Interview defended its choice: "At Interview, we are proud of our tradition of working with great artists and empowering them to realize their bold and often bold visions," they said in a statement. "The Kylie Jenner cover by Steven Klein, which references the British artist Allen Jones, is a part of this tradition, placing Kylie in a variety of positions of power and control and exploring her image of vast media scrutiny." Also known as: an ableist photoshoot.
No. No, no, no. Here is when blackface is okay: never. Never, under any circumstances, including runway fashion shows, is blackface a viable option. But here were the models at Claudio Cutugno this past February, faces and necks painted black with glitter on top. Apparently, the designer was inspired by artist Emilio Isgro (who creates art with bees), and were meant to look like the models were being swarmed with insects, but . . . no. Nope. Mainly because it is 2015 and regardless of what this look was "supposed" to be, it certainly looked like something else that absolutely all of us know to be offensive, racist, and just plain bad. Get it together, Cutugno.
But Claudio Cutugno was just one designer to participate in the fashion and beauty industries‚Äô racist dialogue. As outlined by Nykhor Paul in an Instagram post, the white narrative once again dictated beauty norms, especially at fashion shows, where Paul had to bring her own makeup. "Dear white people in the fashion world!" she wrote. "Please don‚Äôt take this the wrong way, but it‚Äôs time you people get your shit right when it comes to our complexion! Why do I have to bring my own makeup to a professional show when all the other white girls don‚Äôt have to do anything but show up, wtf! I‚Äôm tired of complaining about not getting [booked] as a Black model, and I‚Äôm definitely super-tired for apologizing for my black-ness! ...Why can‚Äôt we be part of fashion fully and equally?" A terrific question. Especially since all the industry needs is common sense. Read: buying products that work with every skin colour, which takes like, what ‚ÄĒ one trip to Sephora? WTF.
I mean, why? Okay: the purpose of this year‚Äôs Met Gala was to celebrate China and its cultural impact, which is great in theory if you assume the event would acknowledge North America‚Äôs rich history of ostracizing Chinese immigrants to the point of trying to push them out of the country. But no, it didn‚Äôt‚ÄĒ so instead, the event became a mecca of cultural appropriation (see: Emma Roberts wearing chopsticks in her hair) and jokes at the hands of host Joel McHale who opened with a bit about opium and Jackie Chan films. The only winner? Rihanna, who showed up wearing Chinese couture by Guo Pei, who had two garments in the exhibition and has also recently collaborated with MAC.
Well here we are, friends. 2015, and Valentino‚Äôs spring show showcased a slew of white models in cornrows, bongo drums, and whatever-the-hell Maria Grazia Chiuri and Pierpaolo Piccioli attributes to Africa ‚ÄĒ or "wild" Africa (which does not make any of this better). In 2015. With white models walking in an Africa-themed show, wearing dreadlocks. See also: Why? No. Stop it and think about what you‚Äôre doing, everyone involved in this. Africa is not a commodity white people get to pluck from in hopes of feeling cutting edge or relevant. We have a word for that. It‚Äôs "appropriation."
And again, this. But this time, Junya Watanabe paid tribute to the continent by decking out white male models in African pieces, and critics praised it for being a commentary on colonialism. However, in the words of Refinery29 writer LeeAnn Duggan, this is colonialism: "A spree through African culture where the Westerner emerges more beautiful and with cooler accessories, but with no greater ability to see or hear the people who created them."
Considering Caitlyn Jenner has only recently come out as transgender, it makes sense that she‚Äôs still learning about the political and social impact of being a very public representative of trans people. But that being said, her comments to TIME last week were still grossly off the mark. Stating the importance of dressing the part because nobody feels comfortable around a "man in a dress," she eventually issued an apology since her comments were met with understandable upset. "I think I caused a lot of hurt with this comment, and I‚Äôm truly sorry," she said in an op-ed posted on Whosay. "What I was trying to say is that our world is really still a binary one, and that people who look 'visibly transgender' sometimes can struggle for acceptance and may be treated poorly by others. And while this may be true, it‚Äôs also something that needs to change."
Considering how far we‚Äôve come since the release of "Zoolander" (as a people, and also as consumers of comedy), it was downright disappointing to see the new trailer feature Benedict Cumberbatch as an androgynous model met with tired, damaging, and ignorant comments about his body and gender. A bummer in and of itself, but when you think of how many people this sloppy and embarrassing writing had to go through, it‚Äôs downright heartbreaking. Know better, Hollywood (and writers/actors/directors who populate it).
Currently, our primary social narrative is the displacement of millions of Syrian refugees who are desperately fleeing their homeland in the wake of war and terrorism. Which I guess is why photographer Norbert Beska staged a "refugee-inspired" fashion editorial that saw models wearing designer pieces amongst a DP camp backdrop. Seriously. Like, actually. As if being a refugee is romantic or glamorous and not at all defined by the trauma of having to leave behind everything you know and love in order to, you know, survive. Just don‚Äôt, you guys.
Let‚Äôs stick to the facts: in October, Rick Owens sent models wearing models (yes, like human backpacks) during his S/S show to depict "sisterhood." Sure.
Oscar commentary this year was bleak. But it was especially bad when "Fashion Police" co-host Giuliana Rancic described Zendaya‚Äôs dreadlocks as making the actress looked like she "smelled like patchouli or weed." (Which, like, what the hell?) So Zendaya responded accordingly, taking to Instagram to defend her hair, her right to wear dreadlocks, the history of dreadlocks, and to offer this: "There is a fine line between what is funny and disrespectful." Rancic ‚ÄĒ fortunately ‚ÄĒ went on to apologize.
You read that correctly. During Milan Fashion Week in March, Dsquared2 presented "Dsquaw," a line consisting of tribal-print leggings, fur and leather coats, and feathered accents ‚ÄĒ all under the incredibly racist/ignorant line's name. Understandably, critics were unhappy, citing cultural misappropriation as well as full-on plagiarism, making this arguably one of the worst WTF of the year.