High on the icy, windswept plateau of East Antarctica an international team of scientists is about to assemble a time machine. First stop: back to the era when Christ was born.
If all goes well, the Australian-led team hopes to eventually retrace one-million years of atmospheric history by drilling deep into the ice in a costly and difficult project. No one has gone back quite so far but the achievement would be a scientific scoop that could help solve the mystery of why the cycle of ice ages has slowed.
And most importantly, scientists hope that by revealing the past we will get a better grasp on how global warming will affect the climate of the future.
The mission is to drill deep into the ancient ice to extract air bubbles that have literally been frozen in time. That rare air can tell scientists important details, such as the levels carbon dioxide (CO2) and volcanic ash in the atmosphere over the years.
In a competing project, China hopes to be first in this great race to the past with a drilling program for million-year-old ice at another part of East Antarctica. The Europeans tried first and retraced back about 890,000 years.
Although the ice is more than four kilometres deep in places in East Antarctica, finding ice at least one million years old has become a global challenge because of the immense cost and logistics.
In a matter of days, the Australian-led team will start assembling their drill site at Aurora Basin, about 3,000 metres above sea level and about 550 kilometres inland from Australia's Casey research station on the Antarctic coast. The small Danish drill will bore into ice that is among the deepest in the world at about 4.2 km.
The cores are sliced in sections about one-metre long, within initial focus on climate from the relatively recent past of some 2,000 years ago, around the dawn of Christianity. The team, jointly funded by the United States, Denmark and France, plans to initially drill down to 400 metres to extract a detailed climate record of this period -- something that is rare in the Southern Hemisphere but crucial for accurate climate analysis.
FILLING IN THE BLANKS
"When you go back into ancient ice, you are getting a true measure of global CO2 levels," said Mark Curran from the Australian Antarctic Division in Hobart, Tasmania.
Curran, science leader for the project, said the ice cores can fill in the blanks about the climate and bolster the analysis from tree rings and deep sediments that scientists have used to estimate how the atmosphere has changed over time.
The six-week drilling window from mid-December to January is dependent on nearly 30 tonnes of equipment that has to be hauled across the ice by tractors. (See the blog by the scientist Tas Van Ommen). Once in place, the drill will extract small cores to be analyzed in Australia and elsewhere, which will take several years.
Curran said there were plenty of ice cores that go back tens or hundreds of thousands of years but the analyses were not detailed enough to get a proper picture of the climate in recent years.
"The resolution we really need is annual resolution over the last 2,000 years because it gives a significant baseline of natural variability of climate over that period of time," he said in an interview.
This period includes climate epochs that are well known in the Northern Hemisphere, such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. "Were these truly global events or were they just localized European phenomena or North America phenomena?" he asked.
"If we understand that, we understand the difference between how the two hemispheres record climate and therefore how climate change might affect those hemispheres."
He said the $10 million project could last about five years. After that, phase 2, costing upwards of $50 million, will go for the prize of million-year-old ice.
The quest for ancient ice has become a major international focus for polar scientists who want answers to a planetary riddle, one that could help us better understand what drives major changes in the world's climate.
Between 1.2-million and about 800,000 years ago, there was a switch from 41,000-year ice age cycles to the 100,000-year cycles we're in now, said Curran. The exact reasons for the switch are not known but some scientists suspect greenhouse gases played a role. The only way to find out is to drill an ice core that captures the picture of the atmosphere before the Earth switched to a slower beat.
"The key question is, what did the CO2 do during that period? Did it beat to the same rhythm as temperature or was it different?" Curran said.
AN ICY SCOOP
So far, only the Europeans have come close to extracting million-year-old ice. Drilling at a site in East Antarctica called Dome C at 75 degrees South, they reached back nearly 900,000 years at a depth of about 3.3 kilometres.
China has recently started drilling at Dome A at 80 degrees South and a recent analysis reveals the site could potentially yield ice 1.3-million years old.
An American ice-core project in West Antarctica reached a final depth of 3.4 km at end of 2011 and extracted ice estimated at 68,000 years old from a region of much younger ice.
Curran believes the area around Aurora Basin holds the oldest ice. The trick is finding exactly where it is because the deepest ice is not necessarily the oldest.
"It doesn't always hold that deeper or thicker ice is older because of the way ice flows and because of the accumulation rate at the surface and the topography at the bottom," Curran said, adding there was melting at the bottom of the ice cap because of warmth from the earth's crust.
"So it might be on the margins on the deep ice that we find where we think the oldest ice is and maybe we only have to drill to 3 km or 2.5 km instead of 4 km," he said, which could speed up the quest. Ice-penetrating radar has also become a major tool in finding the best spots to drill given the mountains and valleys that lie buried under the thick, and shifting, blanket of ice.
Curran said drilling for million-year-old ice wouldn't begin for at least another six years at Aurora Basin and that the project needed a lot of investment to support the creation of a new base at the site as well as logistics support and perfecting a new drill.
Drilling would also likely take a further five years during each summer, making the quest more than a decade in the making.
Curran was diplomatic when asked if he was in a race with the Chinese and others, saying it was better to have several cores to analyze and cross-check the climate data.
"But, having said, if you happen to be the one who holds the first piece of ice that is one million years old, that is pretty cool."
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As humans increase atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, oceans absorb some of the CO2. The resulting drop in ocean pH, known as ocean acidification, has been called <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/09/ocean-acidification-reefs-climate-change_n_1658081.html" target="_hplink">climate change's "equally evil twin"</a> by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration chief Jane Lubchenco. Coral reefs, which are an invaluable part of marine ecosystems and tourism economies, are threatened by ocean warming and acidification. At the 2012 International Coral Reef Symposium in Cairns, Australia, 2,600 scientists signed a petition calling for international action to preserve global coral reefs, <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-18765584" target="_hplink">reported the BBC</a>. Noting that 25 to 30 percent of the world's reefs are already "severely degraded," <a href="http://www.icrs2012.com/Consensus_Statement.htm" target="_hplink">the statement asserts</a> that "climate-related stressors [represent] an unprecedented challenge for the future of coral reefs and to the services they provide to people." A <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/10/coral-triangle-reefs-threatened_n_1662620.html" target="_hplink">recent report from the World Resources Institute</a> found that the Coral Triangle, an important area from central Southeast Asia to the edge of the western Pacific with many reefs, is threatened at a rate far greater than the global average.
Winegrowers in France's Champagne region and scientists have already seen changes in the past 25 years, <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/17/business/energy-environment/winemakers-rising-to-climate-challenge.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all" target="_hplink">reported <em>The New York Times</em></a> last year. They have "noted major changes in their vineyards, including an increased sugar content in the grapes from which they make their wine, with a consequent decrease in acidity, and a harvest time that regularly comes two weeks earlier than it once did." Last year, the <em>Telegraph</em> reported that Bordeaux, one of the world's most famous wine-producing regions, may be "<a href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/foodanddrink/wine/8354820/Global-warming-threatens-wine-production-in-France.html" target="_hplink">unsuitable for wine-growing by 2050</a>." <a href="http://e360.yale.edu/feature/what_global_warming_may_mean_for_worlds_wine_industry/2478/" target="_hplink">Yale Environment 360 explains</a> that many European wines are tied to a specific geographical area, creating a problem for regions which may soon find themselves most suited to a new kind of grape. In the U.S., <a href="http://www.climatechangeandwine.com/noticia-detalle.php?id=421" target="_hplink">researchers at Stanford University found</a> that climate change could mean "50% less land suitable for cultivating premium wine grapes in high-value areas of Northern California." A 2006 study published in the <em>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</em> found that "up to 81 percent" of "premium-wine-grape production area" could decline in the U.S. by the end of this century, <a href="http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/04/climate-desk-wine-industry/" target="_hplink">reported Wired</a>. Without any adaptation measures, wine-grape production could disappear from "many areas" of the country. Wired notes, "By the law of supply and demand, that suggests the best wines of tomorrow will cost even more than the ridiculous amounts they fetch today."
<a href="http://usda01.library.cornell.edu/usda/current/Hone/Hone-03-30-2012.pdf" target="_hplink">According to the USDA, bee populations are dropping nationwide</a>. Wetter winters and rainy summers make it harder for bees to get out and about to collect, leaving them to starve or become malnourished and more prone to other diseases. This doesn't just mean a decline in honey. We rely on bees to pollinate crops. When bees disappear, many food crops could also die off.
As global temperatures rise this century, sea levels are also expected to increase. South Florida may be hit particularly hard. If greenhouse gas emissions are not reduced, global sea levels <a href="http://globalwarming.markey.house.gov/impactzones/florida.html" target="_hplink">could rise over three feet</a> by 2100, with a six foot rise possible. The U.S. Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming notes: <blockquote>This threatens to submerge Florida's coastal communities and economies since roughly 9 percent of the state is within 5 feet of the existing sea level. Rising sea level also threatens the beaches, wetlands, and mangrove forests that surround the state.</blockquote> University of Florida professor Jack Putz said in 2008, "People have a hard time accepting that this is happening here," <a href="http://www.tampabay.com/news/environment/globalwarming/article435224.ece" target="_hplink">reported the <em>Tampa Bay Times</em></a>. Seeing dead palm trees and other impacts "brings a global problem right into our own back yard," he added. <a href="http://geology.com/sea-level-rise/florida.shtml" target="_hplink">Click here</a> to see a map showing what different levels of sea level rise would look like for Florida and other states.
A November 2011 study found that polar bear litters are getting smaller as climate change causes sea ice decline. <a href="http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/media/press/2011/WWFPresitem19837.html" target="_hplink">According to World Wildlife Fund</a>, the study "found that if spring sea ice break-up occurs one month earlier than usual, 40-73 percent of pregnant females could fail to bring cubs to term." The National Snow and Ice Data Center found that in 2010, <a href="http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=49132&src=share" target="_hplink">Arctic sea ice</a> was at its lowest January level in 30 years. With decreased sea ice, polar bears may have greater trouble finding food sources. This could lead to cannibalism, which has already been observed by photographers. Environmental photojournalist Jenny Ross <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-16081214" target="_hplink">told BBC News</a> in 2011, "There are increasing numbers of observations of it occurring, particularly on land where polar bears are trapped ashore, completely food-deprived for extended periods of time due to the loss of sea ice as a result of climate change."
Thanks to a failing peanut crop due to last summer's scorching hot weather, <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/10/peanut-butter-price-jump_n_1003732.html" target="_hplink">there was a shortage of peanuts in supply</a> at the end of 2011. If temperatures continue to rise, a jump in peanut butter prices is just the prelude to what could be in store for the beloved spread.
<a href="http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/Newsroom/Documents/ghana_ivory_coast_climate_change_and_cocoa.pdf" target="_hplink">A report released by the International Center For Tropical Agriculture </a>warns chocolate could become a luxury item if farmers don't adapt to rising temperatures in Ghana and the Ivory Coast, where a majority of the world's cocoa is grown. The October 2011 report, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, "calls for increased research into heat and drought resistant crops, and to help transition cocoa farming to new regions that will be suitable for production in the future," <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2011/09/30/332951/chocolate-climate-change-cocoa-industry-study/" target="_hplink">reported ThinkProgress</a>.
As average temperatures rise over the course of this century, states in the Southern U.S. are expected to see a greater number of days with temperatures over 90 degrees Fahrenheit each year. Hotter temperatures will mean that football players in the South will face a greater risk of hyperthermia, <a href="http://txchnologist.com/post/41213194156/heres-a-reason-to-care-about-climate-change-it-could" target="_hplink">explains GE's TXCHNOLOGIST blog</a>. <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2012/02/05/419061/will-global-warming-ruin-football-in-the-south/" target="_hplink">ThinkProgress suggests</a>, "Indeed, it is the conservative southern U.S., especially the South central and South east, who have led the way in blocking serious climate action, as it were, making yesterday's worst-case scenario into today's likely outcome."
Bad news for allergy sufferers -- climate change, and specifically warmer temperatures, <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/31/seasonal-allergies-rising_n_913650.html" target="_hplink">may bring more pollen and ragweed</a>, according to a <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21259264" target="_hplink">2011 study</a> from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Along with allergies, a changing climate may be tied to more infectious diseases. <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/17/flu-pandemic-climate-pattern-la-nina_n_1211480.html" target="_hplink">According to one study</a>, climate change could affect wild bird migratory patterns, increasing the chances for human flu pandemics. Illnesses like <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/04/global-warming-lyme-disease-west-nile_n_1400692.html" target="_hplink">Lyme disease could also become more prominent</a>.
Famed for producing some of the world's best beer, <a href="http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080502/full/news.2008.799.html" target="_hplink">Germany could suffer from a drop in production due to climate change-induced water shortages</a>. Barley and hops can only be grown with water, and using cheaper alternatives like corn isn't possible in Germany because of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reinheitsgebot" target="_hplink">strict regulations</a> about what you can make beer with. Research published earlier this year in the journal <a href="http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v2/n7/full/nclimate1491.html" target="_hplink"><em>Nature Climate Change</em></a> found that "unless farmers develop more heat-tolerant corn varieties or gradually move corn production from the United States into Canada, frequent heat waves will cause sharp price spikes," <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/23/business/climate-change-effect-seen-for-corn-prices.html" target="_hplink">reported <em>The New York Times</em></a>. Price spikes for U.S. corn could affect prices of <a href="http://beeradvocate.com/beer/style/38/" target="_hplink">American macrobrews</a> made with an <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjuncts" target="_hplink">adjunct ingredient like corn</a>.
With higher temperatures expected in northern latitudes in coming decades, the U.K. has begun a program to develop strawberries that will survive in higher temperatures with less water. Since chocolate also may be threatened, could sexy chocolate-covered strawberries, a Valentine's Day staple, be endangered? <a href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/8603607/Climate-change-resistant-strawberries.html" target="_hplink">According to <em>The Telegraph</em></a>, Dr. David Simpson, a scientist with England's East Malling Research, said last year, "Consumer demand for fresh strawberries in the UK has been growing year on year since the early 1990s. The British growers have done a great job of increasing their productivity to satisfy this demand between April and October. The future will be challenging due to the impacts of climate change and the withdrawal of many pesticides but the breeding programme at EMR is using the latest scientific approaches to develop a range of varieties that will meet the needs of our growers for the future."
Coffee lovers may want to get that caffeine fix before the treasured drink becomes a rare export. Starbucks raised the issue last year when the company's director of sustainability told <em>The Guardian</em> that <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/16/starbucks-climate-change_n_1011222.html" target="_hplink">climate change is threatening the supply chain</a> for the Arabica coffee bean. Starbucks Sustainability Director <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2011/oct/13/starbucks-coffee-climate-change-threat?newsfeed=true" target="_hplink">Jim Hanna told the paper</a>, "What we are really seeing as a company as we look 10, 20, 30 years down the road - if conditions continue as they are - is a potentially significant risk to our supply chain, which is the Arabica coffee bean."
According to a 2011 U.S. Interior Department report, "annual flows in three prominent river basins - the Colorado, Rio Grande and San Joaquin - could decline by as much [as] 8 percent to 14 percent over the next four decades," <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/04/26/western-us-water-supplies-climate-change_n_853882.html" target="_hplink">reported the Associated Press</a>. Expected changes in temperature and precipitation are likely to alter river flows "with increased flooding possible in the winter due to early snowmelt and water shortages in the summer due to reductions in spring and summer runoffs." Mike Connor, commissioner of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, said, "Impacts to water are on the leading edge of global climate change." Earlier this year, the Bureau of Reclamation <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/11/us-reviews-ideas-for-boos_n_1418724.html" target="_hplink">asked the public to suggest ideas</a> for meeting future water demand around the Colorado River basin.
Reindeer, also known as "caribou" in North America, could face a difficult future in a warmer climate. <a href="http://www.usnews.com/news/energy/slideshows/10-animals-threatened-by-global-warming" target="_hplink">According to U.S. News & World Report</a>, "Russell Graham, associate professor of geosciences and director of the Earth and Mineral Sciences Museum at Penn State University, says global warming will most harm the animals adapted to the coldest environments, primarily those accustomed to life in the Arctic." A 2008 study found that caribou in West Greenland are "now arriving after peak foraging time, fewer calves are being born and more calves are dying," <a href="http://www.sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/341435/title/Animals_on_the_Move" target="_hplink">reported ScienceNews</a>.
It may be a bit harder to drown your pancakes in maple syrup in the future, <a href="http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/effects-global-warming-maple-syrup-production-20078.html" target="_hplink">studies suggest</a>. According to <a href="http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Nov10/SyrupClimate.html" target="_hplink">a 2010 Cornell University study</a>, "maple syrup production in the Northeast is expected to slightly decline by 2100, and the window for tapping trees will move earlier by about a month." Additionally, most maple syrup production south of Pennsylvania "will likely be lost by 2100 due to lack of freezing." <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2012/01/no-maple-syrup-2100" target="_hplink">Click here to watch one farmer's fight to save New Hampshire's sugar maples.</a>
According to a <a href="http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/ntrout.asp" target="_hplink">2002 study by the Natural Resources Defense Council and Defenders of Wildlife</a>, a warming planet does not bode well for species that thrive in cold streams. The study found that "global warming is likely to spur the disappearance of trout and salmon from as much as 18 to 38 percent of their current habitat by the year 2090." A 2011 study published in the <em>Proceedings of the National Academies of Science</em> produced "models [which] forecast significant declines in trout habitat across the interior western United States in the 21st century," <a href="http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/trout-fishing-in-a-climate-changed-america/" target="_hplink">reported <em>The New York Times</em></a>. The study claims, "The decline will have significant socioeconomic consequences as recreational trout fisheries are valued in the hundreds of millions of dollars in the United States alone."
According to a 2012 report from New Jersey-based nonprofit <a href="http://sealevel.climatecentral.org/" target="_hplink">Climate Central</a>, thousands of New York City residents may be at risk for severe <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/15/rising-sea-levels-threate_n_1347333.html" target="_hplink">coastal flooding as a result of climate change</a>. <a href="http://slr.s3.amazonaws.com/factsheets/New_York.pdf" target="_hplink">Climate Central explains</a>, "the NY metro area hosts the nation's highest-density populations vulnerable to sea level rise." They argue, "the funnel shape of New York Harbor has the potential to magnify storm surges already supplemented by sea level rise, threatening widespread areas of New York City."
With droughts and wildfires hitting many parts of the U.S., municipalities from <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/03/colorado-wildfires-2012-f_n_1647571.html" target="_hplink">Colorado</a> to <a href="http://www.nashvillescene.com/pitw/archives/2012/07/03/climate-change-is-totally-ruining-your-4th-of-july" target="_hplink">Tennessee</a> canceled July 4th public fireworks displays or banned personal fireworks this year, citing the fire hazards they posed. In June, a <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/12/climate-change-wildfires_n_1588741.html" target="_hplink">study published in the journal <em>Ecosphere</em></a> found that almost all of North America will see more wildfires by 2100, reported Reuters. The study's lead author, Max Moritz, said, "In the long run, we found what most fear - increasing fire activity across large areas of the planet."
Along with <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/06/brazil-amazon-rainforest-deforestation-levels_n_1130554.html" target="_hplink">deforestation</a>, climate change also poses a serious threat to South America's Amazon rainforest. A 2009 study from the U.K. Met Office found that a global temperature rise of four degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels would cause 85 percent of the Amazon to die off in the next 100 years. Even a two degree Celsius rise would kill 20 to 40 percent of the rainforest, <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/mar/11/amazon-global-warming-trees" target="_hplink">reported the <em>Guardian</em></a>. In May, The Club of Rome think tank predicted a global average temperatures rise of "2 degrees Celsius by 2052 and a 2.8 degree rise by 2080," <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/08/club-of-rome-climate-change_n_1499183.html" target="_hplink">reported Reuters</a>. Jorgen Randers, author of the club's report, said, "It is unlikely that governments will pass necessary regulation to force the markets to allocate more money into climate-friendly solutions, and (we) must not assume that markets will work for the benefit of humankind." He added, "We are emitting twice as much greenhouse gases every year as are absorbed by the world's forests and oceans. This overshoot will worsen and will peak in 2030."
As global sea levels rise during the 21st century, low-lying island nations like the Maldives could see their very existence threatened. With a three to six foot sea level rise predicted by 2100, nations like the Maldives could become uninhabitable, <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/cwire/2011/05/25/25climatewire-island-nations-may-keep-some-sovereignty-if-63590.html" target="_hplink">explained <em>The New York Times</em></a>. <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/06/mohamed-nasheed-maldives-climate-change-united-states_n_1652409.html" target="_hplink">Maldives' former president, Mohamed Nasheed</a>, has been a tireless campaigner for the urgent need for countries to take action against climate change, arguing "You can't pick and choose on science."
Although seasonal fluctuations occur and El Nino/La Nina weather patterns affect snowfall, global temperature rise may impact conditions for skiers and boarders. "The long-term trend is less snow and earlier snowmelt. This means more frustration for snow sport enthusiasts and a negative impact on the snow sports industry," <a href="http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/tspencer/skiing_snow_blog_2312.html" target="_hplink">writes the Natural Resources Defense Council's Theo Spencer</a>. In May, a snow-less ski race was held in Aspen, Colorado to "highlight the effect climate change has on the outdoor recreation industry," <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/06/aspen-ski-area-climate-change_n_1489390.html" target="_hplink">reported the Associated Press</a>.
A 2010 paper in the journal <em>Food Research International</em> found that climate change may one day affect the cost and quality of traditional Thanksgiving dishes, <a href="http://news.discovery.com/earth/thanksgiving-climate-change.html" target="_hplink">reported Discovery News</a>. Future temperature rises could impact the quality of turkey meat. Additionally, foods like "pumpkins, sweet potatoes, potatoes, grains [and] green beans ... will be sensitive to water shortages should they arise," study author Neville Gregory told Discovery News. In fact, common Thanksgiving foods were <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/21/thanksgiving-dinner-battles-weather_n_1099899.html" target="_hplink">impacted by weather events in 2011</a>, with shortages and price spikes hitting over the holidays.
Earlier this year, researchers from the U.S. Forest Service confirmed that climate warming is killing southeast Alaska's mighty yellow cedars. The study, published in the journal <em>Bioscience</em>, found that with decreasing snow cover, the trees' shallow roots are more vulnerable to freezing, <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/18/climate-change-yellow-cedar_n_1286387.html" target="_hplink">reported AP</a>. Paul Schaberg, a U.S. Forest Service plant pathologist, said, "As time goes on and climates change even more, other species, other locations, are likely to experience similar kinds of progressions, so you might do well to understand this one so you can address those future things."
Scientists at the British Met Office warn that Italy may soon be forced to<a href="http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/climate-threat-to-italys-pasta/story-e6frg6so-1225797946930" target="_hplink"> import the basic ingredients to make pasta because climate change will make it impossible to grow durum wheat domestically</a>. The crop could almost disappear from the country later this century, scientists say.
Along with the Maldives and other island nations, Kiribati is also threatened by climate change. Earlier this year, the president's cabinet endorsed a plan to spend about $9.6 million for 6,000 acres on Fiji's main island, <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/09/kiribati-global-warming-fiji_n_1334228.html" target="_hplink">reported AP</a>. President Anote Tong told AP, "We would hope not to put everyone on one piece of land, but if it became absolutely necessary, yes, we could do it." He added, "It wouldn't be for me, personally, but would apply more to a younger generation. For them, moving won't be a matter of choice. It's basically going to be a matter of survival."
A 2011 report from the U.K.'s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs found that climate change could affect certain infrastructure, like wireless internet. <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/may/09/climate-change-wi-fi-connections" target="_hplink">The <em>Guardian</em> reports</a>, "higher temperatures can reduce the range of wireless communications, rainstorms can impact the reliability of the signal, and drier summers and wetter winters may cause greater subsidence, damaging masts and underground cables," according to secretary of state for the environment. The <em>Guardian</em> notes, "The government acknowledges that the impact of climate change on telecommunications is not well understood, but the report raises a series of potential risks."
The Great Smoky Mountains have the most annual rainfall in the southeastern U.S., which mostly falls as a light, misty rain, <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/28/great-smoky-mountains-climate-change_n_1461482.html" target="_hplink">explains OurAmazingPlanet</a>. A study by a team from NASA's Precipitation Measurement Missions found that "light rainfall is the dominant form of precipitation in the region, accounting for 50 to 60 percent of a year's total, governing the regional water cycle." <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/28/great-smoky-mountains-climate-change_n_1461482.html" target="_hplink">OurAmazingPlanet</a> notes: <blockquote>The results suggest the area may be more susceptible to climate change than thought; as temperatures rise, more of the fine droplets from light rain will evaporate in the air and fail to reach the ground. Lower elevations will have to contend with not only higher temperatures, but less cloud cover.</blockquote>
Along the California coast, beach communities are finding that it may be impossible to stop coastal erosion as global sea levels rise. <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/02/beach-communities-moving-inward_n_1565122.html" target="_hplink">According to AP</a>, David Revell, a senior coastal scientist at <a href="http://www.pwa-ltd.com/" target="_hplink">ESA PWA</a>, acknowledged the relentless power of the sea, saying, "I like to think of it as getting out of the way gracefully." A <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/22/west-coast-sea-level-rise_n_1619568.html" target="_hplink">report released in June by the Natural Resources Defense Council</a> found that West Coast ocean levels will rise several inches in the next few decades. Sea levels along the California coast are expected to be six inches higher by 2030 and three feet higher by the end of the century. Despite the risks, another recent NRDC study found that <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/08/california-climate-change-study_n_1409312.html" target="_hplink">California is one of several states</a> with the best plans to deal with the effects of climate change.
2012 could be a record year for the extent of Arctic sea ice at its yearly summer minimum. Walt Meier, a research scientist at the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center, said that with recent satellite observations, "It definitely portends a low-ice year, whether it means it will go below 2007 (the record minimum in September), it is too early to tell," <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/18/arctic-sea-ice-levels_n_1605441.html" target="_hplink">reported LiveScience</a>. As sea ice declines in the Arctic, countries are anticipating a <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/16/arctic-climate-change-military-activity_n_1427565.html" target="_hplink">competition for control of shipping lanes and mineral extraction</a> in the region. In Antarctica, research from the United States' Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula has found that "87 percent of the peninsula's land-bound glaciers are in retreat," <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/12/environmental-threats-antarctica_n_1669023.html" target="_hplink">reported OurAmazingPlanet</a>. Decreasing sea ice levels were also addressed in <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/18/shell-arctic-ready-hoax-greenpeace_n_1684222.html" target="_hplink">a recent spoof of Shell's plans to drill for oil in the Arctic this summer</a>.
Climate change has already impacted sugarcane production in Indonesia. In late 2011, the <a href="http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/11/09/sugar-association-blames-climate-change-production-drop.html http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/11/09/sugar-association-blames-climate-change-production-drop.html" target="_hplink">chairman of the Indonesian Sugarcane Farmers Association said</a>, "sugarcane production decreased by up to 30 percent in 2011 due to climate change that has occurred since 2009."
Climate changes and insect invasions threaten the future supply of morning joe.
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