When Paul Watson attended the Oceans Forum at COP 21 last November, he shared his reflections in a Facebook post. He heard a fishing industry panelist speak of a "movement of product" in the oceans, presumably referring to the legions of fishes, crustaceans and others who are undertaking mass migrations due to climate change.
The callousness of this term is at once striking and salient, since the language we use is a potent force in shaping our relationship to the world. While some might dismiss it as being industry jargon, the same capitalistic ideology inherent in that term also informs western science -- with many articles referring to whales as "biomass" rather than individuals -- and our legal system, which still considers whales, dolphins, and all life in the oceans as property.
Unfortunately, this ideology has also infiltrated Oceans Day. According to the official website, we should "celebrate" how the oceans "feed us, regulate our climate" and "offer a pharmacopeia of medicines." Oceans Day wants to "change perspectives" and encourages people to think about "what [the ocean] has to offer all of us" as human beings.
This blatantly anthropocentric messaging shouldn't be surprising, given that SeaWorld and other corporate users of the oceans are sponsors of Oceans Day. But it is concerning, because these companies are actively co-opting the narrative of ocean conservation and shaping the movement into one that values the oceans only for what they can provide to our economies.
Make no mistake -- companies like SeaWorld will never invest or sponsor anything that challenges their business model.
These businesses require this narrative to continue transforming and selling life in the oceans as "products" to be eaten, or "assets" to be displayed in concrete tanks. By celebrating "all the oceans have to offer" as Oceans Day suggests, we celebrate their wholesale destruction and the ongoing tragedy of the commons that capitalism perpetuates.
Philosopher Walter Benjamin called capitalism a "religion of destruction." As new evidence emerges -- that fish can be depressed and recognize human faces -- we can see more clearly that capitalism is not based on, nor much concerned with, these pillars of science and rationality that it claims as its foundation. We begin to see that it is only a belief system. Fortunately, with this understanding comes power, because what we once believed in, we can also believe out of. This is what Oceans Day needs to be about.
Make no mistake -- companies like SeaWorld will never invest or sponsor anything that challenges their business model. This is why SeaWorld tends not to fund research into intelligence or emotional capacities of cetaceans, which would further call into question their consideration and treatment as property. If, on the other hand, a humane accolade or certification will put consumer's concerns at ease, they will pay for that -- and they have. If they can throw money at a global day of awareness that shapes people's perception of the oceans and reinforces our dominion over them, they will. All of this is in service, always and forever, to their bottom lines.
As the Oceans Day website says, a change of perspective is needed: but one that allows us to re-imagine our relationship to other animals, that removes our anthropocentric bias and that calls into question our unequivocal placement of human desires above those of other animals and "nature." This can be accomplished in many ways, including a reconfiguration of the language we use when referring to the oceans and life therein. We should reject the fishing industry's transformation of fishes into product, and SeaWorld's ownership of "their" whales. The only way we can reverse the damage we are doing is if Oceans Day can be about respecting the oceans for what, and who, they truly are.
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What is the first word that comes to your mind when you hear 'Pacific Ocean'? If it's 'pacify', then, you already know how this ocean was named. The name of the ocean was originally a specific use of pacific, meaning ‘peaceful’ or ‘characterized by calmness’. Pacific Ocean derives from Mar Pacifico, the name given in Portuguese, Italian, and Spanish to the body of water in allusion to the calm seas experienced by Ferdinand Magellan on first reaching it in 1520.
Atlantic Ocean, the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean, refers to Atlas of Greek mythology, making the Atlantic the "Sea of Atlas". Greek Atlantikos, from Atlas, is the Titan of Greek mythology who supported the heavens with his great strength. (His image appeared as a frontispiece to early collections of maps in a volume, leading to the modern use of the word atlas.) The term Atlantic originally referred to the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, and hence to the sea near the west African coast, and was later extended to refer to the whole ocean.
The Arctic Ocean, the smallest of the world’s oceans, unsurprisingly, surrounds the Arctic; that is, the regions around the North Pole. Arctic conceals its origins rather more successfully. It comes from the Greek word--arktos, meaning ‘bear’ – and ‘Ursa Major’ and ‘pole star’. The connection between bear and star comes from the story in Greek mythology that the nymph Callisto was turned into a bear and placed as a constellation in the heavens by Zeus.
Linguistically, it's the least interesting ocean. It is named simply because it is to the south of India.
The Antarctic Ocean, also known as the Southern Ocean, is defined in opposition to the Arctic. Antarctic simply means ‘opposite to the Arctic’. Formerly the Southern Ocean was a traditional mariner's term, but the name was made official by the International Hydrographic Organizationexternal link in 2000. The Southern Ocean was previously considered by non-mariners to be the location where the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans stretched to Antarctica.
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