Amidst an orgy of martial patriotism that is finally over, there was a sad irony.
In recent days the Canadian Forces, banks, politicians, sports TV networks, private foundations, news media, etc. have all promoted the idea that the centennial of Canadian troops capturing some high ground in France during a minor battle during the First World War somehow represented the "birth" of Canada. The notion that the battle of Vimy Ridge "created our country" is bizarre enough, but the celebration of First Nations participation in this episode of Canadian imperialism pushed the exercise into the realm of the absurd.
The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is seen at sunrise in Vimy, France. (Photo: Chris Wattie/Reuters)
One hundred years ago in northern France, 10,000 Canadians and 20,000 Germans were hurt or killed during four days of fighting to capture Vimy Ridge. Despite the claim that it represented the "birth" of Canada, the soldiers were under British command and the battle had little impact on the war. The young men fell in a war spurred by intra-imperialist competition in Africa and elsewhere.
Strangely, the recent Vimy commemorations included an indigenous component. The prime minister's office put out a number of press releases that mentioned the "indigenous organizations" that formed part of his official delegation to France. APTN did a story titled "Métis man with special connection to Vimy Ridge battle will see history up close," while a CKOM headline noted, "Indigenous veteran reflects on personal ties to Vimy Ridge." A Two Row Times article was titled "'Indian' warriors of Vimy Ridge," and on CBC's Unreserved, former Native Women's Association of Canada President Marilyn Buffalo discussed her grandfather, Henry Norwest, who died at Vimy.
Canadian soldiers have only fought in one morally justifiable war: the Second World War.
Historically the racist, colonialist narrative erased the contribution of First Nations to Canadian warfare. But the recent truth and reconciliation process has included significant attention devoted to indigenous members of the Canadian armed forces. The Canadian Forces, government commissions and indigenous veterans associations (often backed by Veteran Affairs) have produced much of the laudatory literature on aboriginal war veterans.
A dozen books and theses, as well as hundreds of articles, detailing First Nations' contribution to Canadian/British wars mostly echo the military's perspective of those conflicts. In "The Awakening Has Come": Canadian First Nations in the Great War Era, 1914-1932, Eric Story depicts the First World War as a noble affair: "The Great War had put First Nations shoulder to shoulder with Euro-Canadians in a fight for human rights and dignity," writes Story in Canadian Military History Journal.
The editor of We Were There said the aim of the Saskatchewan Indian Veterans Association book is to convince kids they fought for "freedom:" "I wanted to publish... to let Indian children know that their fathers and grandfathers fought for the freedom we now cherish." (In truth, Canadian soldiers have only fought in one morally justifiable war: the Second World War.)
French President Francois Hollande (R) and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau walk in the Canadian First World War military cemetery during a commemoration ceremony to mark the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge, in Vimy, near Arras, northern France, on April 9, 2017. (Photo: Philippe Huguen/Reuters)
The Canadian Aboriginal Veterans and Serving Members Association (alongside other indigenous veterans' groups) have been pressing the federal government to proclaim Nov. 8 National Aboriginal Veterans Day. In 2016, Veterans Affairs Minister Kent Hehr attended an Ottawa celebration while Indigenous Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett participated in a Fredericton ceremony. In a statement Hehr noted, "we thank the thousands of indigenous Canadians in uniform who answered the call of duty and made the ultimate sacrifice. Their contributions and efforts have helped our country in its efforts to make this world a safer place."
There is even a current of "progressive" thinking that draws on indigenous military contributions to legitimate criticism of Canadian colonialism while simultaneously promoting Canadian imperialism. In a 2013 Huffington Post blog titled "Whitewashing Remembrance: I Wear A Poppy For Native Veterans," Elizabeth Hawksworth made an antiracist argument for wearing the red poppy. "I choose to wear it because as a woman with native ancestry, I want to remember those whose faces we never see in the Heritage Moments or on the Remembrance Day TV spots... I wear the poppy not just as a way to remember, but as a statement: freedom doesn't just belong to white folks."
Glorifying First Nations participation in imperialist wars as part of overcoming Canada's colonial treatment of First Nations is, at a minimum, ironic.
Of course, the red poppy is the property of, and raises funds for, the jingoist Royal Canadian Legion. Additionally, red poppies were inspired by the 1915 poem "In Flanders Fields" by Canadian army officer John McCrae. The pro-war poem calls on Canadians to "take up our quarrel with the foe" and was used to promote war bonds and recruit soldiers during the First World War.
In a TVO interview marking the hundredth anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War, author Joseph Boyden said indigenous men enlisted to "do what's right." As he denounced the mistreatment of indigenous peoples after the war, the author of Three Day Road, a novel dedicated to "the native soldiers who fought in the Great War," called their fighting a "beautiful corner" of Canadian history.
But there was nothing "beautiful" about the First World War. It was an inter-imperialist conflict that left 15 million dead. All the ordinary soldiers who participated in it were victims of the ruling classes' imperial ambitions.
And glorifying First Nations participation in imperialist wars as part of overcoming Canada's colonial treatment of First Nations is, at a minimum, ironic.
This is where blind foreign policy nationalism and so-called patriotism has taken us.
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The still pockmarked landscape of Beaumont Hamel on the Somme. Where the Newfoundland Regt were decimated by German machine guns. British photographer Michael St Maur Sheil has spent the last few years taking poignant and evocative pictures of some of the most notorious battlefields of WW1 as they are today, nearly 100 years after the Great war. The pictures show beautiful landscapes that still show the scars of the conflict in which 10 million soldiers died.
The still pockmarked landscape of Beaumont Hamel on the Somme, where the Newfoundland Regt was decimated by German machine guns.
The sole remains of the Chateau de Soupir which was badly damaged during the war. The village was cleared by the Brigade of Guards on the 14th September 1914, and on the same day, and for some days later, heavy fighting took place. "I started in 2006. I had a chance meeting with a man called Professor Richard Holmes, a military historian. I'm a professional photographer by background and he wanted some photographs for a book, and I just happened to mention I was going to France. He asked me to take photographs of a battlefield, I did and he liked them, and we started talking, and I've been stuck in a muddy field ever since," Sheil said.
A misty winter morning on the Somme - looking towards Lutyens Thiepval memorial.
The 'Iron harvest' of the Somme - even today munitions from the conflict are still ploughed up by the farmers.
Lochnagar Crater - Somme. This mine was dug by 185th Tunnelling Corp and used two charges totalling 50,000 lb of ammonal. It was blown at 7.28 am on 21 July 1916.
Gallipoli - Helles. W Beach (the Lancashire Landing). Lancashire Fusiliers won 6 VCs here on 25 April 25 1915. The posts are the remnants of the landing pier which was subsequently built here.
Part of the 'Iron harvest' on the Somme. "As a photographer you are trying to communicate and these photographs do seem to strike a chord. Which is very different from the work I did for most of my career," Sheil said,
Winter snow at Tyne Cot cemetery near Ypres - where 12,000 British & Commonwealth dead are buried.
Winter view of the German cemetery at Le Linge. This rocky spur, about 500m long and 1000m high with three sides sloping down steeply into the Weiss valley below was heavily fortified by the Germans and attacked furiously by the French in 1915. Today the German tranches are remarkably well preserved.