The IIHF says Qatar will become a full member after an audit, and Jamaica joins as an associate member.
The decisions were taken at the governing body's annual congress in Helsinki, Finland, during the world championships.
The IIHF says Qatar formed an ice hockey body in 2010 and has two rinks in Doha. The tiny, desert nation runs a five-team national league. Qatar is the third member country from the oil-rich Gulf region, following the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait.
Jamaica formed its federation last year with one rink, and is the first Caribbean member of the world body.