The 20-year-old Shavdatuashvili defeated Miklos Ungvari of Hungary in a tense final where he was frequently defending against repeated attacks from his opponent. Shavdatuashvili managed to score with a throw after sweeping his opponent's foot in the first few minutes of the match.
It is Shavdatuashvili's first Olympic medal.
Shavdatuashvili defeated one of the favourites, Masashi Ebinuma of Japan, in the semifinals with a match-ending ippon.
The bronze medals were won by Ebinuma and Cho Jun-ho of South Korea.
Ebinuma defeated Toronto's Sasha Mehmedovic in the second round.