Goderie weaved through China's defence and shot past goalkeeper Zhang Yimeng in the 10th minute — her tenth international goal. It was a repeat performance of the final at the 2008 Beijing Games, when Goderie scored to help the Netherlands beat China 2-0.
In earlier matches, 20-year-old defender Anna Flanagan smashed in a penalty corner in the 32nd minute to score the winning goal in Australia's 1-0 win over the United States; South Korea snatched its first win of the tournament, against Japan; and Germany recovered after a sluggish performance against Australia Tuesday to beat South Africa 2-0.
The No. 1-ranked Netherlands dominated against China but could manage only one goal.
"It should have been 5 or 6-0," Dutch coach Max Caldas said. "I'm not happy that we had so many chances and not many goals. Otherwise I'm happy."
Australia defender Flanagan's goal in the 32nd minute against the U.S. was her second in two successive games, and Australian captain Madonna Blyth was hopeful about her team's chances of progressing to the semifinals.
"We're pretty positive with how we're going," she said. "We keep improving. Hopefully we have a good game against Argentina."
The Argentines rebounded from a shock 1-0 defeat by the U.S. on Tuesday to beat New Zealand 2-1, thanks to a goal in each half from Carla Rebecchi. Charlotte Harrison scored in the 62nd for New Zealand.
Laura Bartlett, Ashleigh Ball and Crista Cullen scored as host Britain easily beat Belgium 3-0.
Earlier, South Korea beat Japan 1-0 for its first victory of the competition. Twenty-year-old Korea forward Cheon Seul-ki scored the only goal of the game in the 41st minute to earn her side three points.
"This is my first Olympics and my first Olympic goal so it was really fantastic," Cheon said.
Japanese captain Yukari Yamamoto had not lost hope of advancing to the next round, despite not taking any points from three games.
"I believe we still have a chance," she said. "We need to try and not concede goals."
Germany forward Marie Mavers scored her first goal of the tournament against South Africa, netting a 24th-minute field goal, and in the second half captain Fanny Rinne scored her second this Olympics from a penalty corner.
"It is cool to score every time, but today it was so important and especially because it is my job in the team to score," said 21-year-old Mavers.
South Africa are no longer capable of progressing to the group stages, having lost three games out of three with two more games to go.