The last woman to win the dash twice in a row was Gail Devers of the U.S. in 1992 and 1996.
Running with a gold chain dangling around her neck, Fraser-Pryce delivered the second-fastest Olympic 100 in history to edge Jeter, whose time was 10.78. Veronica Campbell-Brown of Jamaica, the 200 champion at the past two Summer Games, earned the bronze Saturday in 10.81.
The 5-foot-3 Fraser-Pryce has served a six-month doping suspension after taking a banned painkiller following a dental procedure.
She was the 2009 world champion in the 100.