The St. John's International Airport Authority said there were nine people aboard the aircraft at the time, but there were no injuries.
It said the Ilyushin 76 was arriving from Prestwick, England, when it overshot the airport's main, 2,590-metre runway around 4:20 p.m.
Marie Manning, a spokeswoman for the authority, said it was unclear what caused the incident. She said visibility at the time was good, though it was overcast and cloudy with light winds.
"Anything at this point would be speculation," she said in an interview Monday.
"Our focus right now is on responding to the emergency situation and making sure that everyone is OK and returning to regular operations."
She said the Transportation Safety Board had been contacted.
The runway was expected to remain closed until about 9 p.m. Tuesday while officials investigate any potential damage.
"We do have our emergency response team out there and they are working with the crew of the aircraft, just assessing what damage has been done to the infrastructure of the runway and the lighting system," said Manning.
"From what they have assessed to this point, it's not too severe."
The airport's secondary runway was temporarily closed, but reopened about an hour after the incident. Manning said all flights were on schedule.
Manning said the aircraft was operating on behalf of an oil and gas company on the island. She could not say what it was carrying, but said there were no dangerous goods on board.