Régis Labeaume earned the fourth spot in the foundation's "World Mayor Project," an initiative that spotlights the good work of mayors around the world.
Labeaume was outranked by mayors from Indonesia, Australia and Spain.
According to the website, more than 463,000 people from across the globe voted for their favourite city leaders.
The City Mayors Foundation said people's arguments supporting some mayors were what helped the group make its decision and decide how to rank the mayors.
The group also said it looked for honest mayors with strong leadership skills, integrity and the capacity to manage a city.
According to the comments supporting Labeaume, it was his enthusiasm that helped bring him to the forefront.
His ability to attract international artists and coordinate large events for Quebec City was also cited.
The mayor of the city of Bilbao in Spain, Inaki Azkuna, earned the top spot for having transformed the city into a tourism hot spot.
Lisa Scaffidi from Perth, Australia, came second while Jakarta Mayor Joko Widodo came in third.
Labeaume is the only Canadian to make it in the City Mayors Foundation's top 10 best mayors of 2012.
The City Mayors Foundation said it aims to promote politicians who "have made contributions to the well-being of cities nationally and internationally." It has been ranking the world's top best mayors since 2004.
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